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NATS_1760- chp2.pdf

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Natural Science
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NATS 1760
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Science, Technology & Citizenship 2: Experts Collins & Evans, “Why Expertise?” “Science, if it can deliver truth, cannot deliver it at the speed of politics” (p. 23) “…the train of a perfect science is always leaving the station just as you get there” (p. 23) BUT: … how do we “…balance science and technology against general opinion” (p. 23) Collins & Evans Kleinman “We ought to prefer the judgments of those “The quality of decisions made on highly who know what they are talking about.” (p. 24) technical matters might very well be improved by broadening the array of knowledge How do we know you know? producers beyond traditional experts (pp. 3-4) - Reject attributional, relational models of expertise (p. 24) - Adopt a realist model: expertise is something you require Realist Attributional/Relational Degree of expertise in speaking a language In France, everyone can speak Frenchh, thus remains the same in whichever country the speaking French is not an expertise language is spoken (p.25) In Australia, few speak French, so speaking The ubiquity of an expertise is not the absence French is an expertise of an expertise Consider: Expertise is what people say expertise is - Can machines speak? - Human versus Machine - Acceptance by users (attributional) or an essential difference? Realist Attributional Expertise is some quality you possess Expertise is attributed to you by others The refusal to recognize is NOT the same as The refusal to recognize expertise IS the same not having expertise as not having expertise Expertise Expertise - a possession - You‟re renting it - acquired somehow - It was delegated to you Collins & Evans Kleinman Overcome the tension between experts and Overcome the tension between experts and democracy? democracy? - Show how we can value experts without - Show how citizens can improve decisions losing sight of citizens that involve science Pp. 24-25 Pp. 17-20 “Strategies for overcoming the - There is not complete solution (p.25) obstacles” - Problem recurs in issues of “how to - Increase citizen resources understand the other” (p. 26) - Address disparities and inequalities - E.g.: anthropology, standpoint theory - Citizen juries - Improve expert collaboration with non- experts Folk Wisdom Is folk wisdom the solution to the tension between expertise and democracy? Folk wisdom: the claim that ordinary people are wiser than experts in some technical areas (p. 6 of Why Expertise) - Ordinary folk can know science by observing its surface? - The anthropologist can know natives without experience? - Politicians can know sham science better than scientists? - Ordinary folk don‟t need lived experience? Tacit Knowledge Genuine understanding involves tacit knowledge (pp. 27-28) Tacit knowledge: “The deep understanding acquired via social immersion in groups who possess it” (p. 27) (versus distance lends enchantment (p. 27) - We know more than we can tell - Has not or cannot be made explicit - E.g.: riding a bike Tacit knowledge: Weak  Tacit because of relations between people  Can be made explicit, depending upon social organization - E.g.: intermediaries: concealed and unrecognized knowledge: practicality Medium  Tacit because o
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