Chapter 1 NATS 1945
• The term technology dates back as far as the 17 century. th
• Jacob Bigelow (1831) equated technology to inventions and creations.
Theories of Technological Development
i) Technological Determinism (TDE)
• Technological determinism is a viewpoint that regards tech as the prime
agent of social and organizational change.
• Tech is seen as an independent entity that changes and shapes society.
• Humans have no control over a tech once it has been built.
• TDE offers a linear account of tech development that is inherently
• The idea that TDE is the cause of social, political, economic, and cultural
change is the central element in determinist theories.
• Therefore tech is the ``driving force of history``.
• Criticized for simplifying what is a far more complex relationship between
tech and society.
• Critics argue that determinists place technology outside society and
neglect to account for the human factor in technological innovation.
• TDE is also universalistic, because it does not account for the fact that tech
development, innovation, and uses varies with different cultures and groups
ii) Technology as Applied Science
• Tech as an applied science refers to the idea that technology is driven by
• The theory works wi