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Chapter 1

ORGS 1000 - Chapter 1 Notes

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Organization Studies
ORGS 1000
Frank Miller

Chapter 1 – What is OB?  OB is a field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations  An organization is a structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed-upon objectives.  Organizations are open systems -- that is, they are self sustaining systems that use energy to transform resources from the environment into some form of output.  Scholars in mgmt departments and scientists in business orgs conduct research on OB  Contrasts with human resource mgmt (which takes theories and principles of OB and explores the nuts and bolts applications)  OB study might explore the relationship between learning and job performance, whereas an HR mgmt study might examine the best ways to structure training programs to promote employee learning  Strategic mgmt focuses on the product choices and industry characteristics affect an organization’s profitability. They will study the relationship between firm diversification and firm profitability  Role of management theory  Theories and concepts in OB have also been heavily influenced by the popular mgmt approaches of the day, such as Frederick Winslow Taylor’s theory of scientific management, where he focused on designing optimal and efficient work processes. (optimize performance of any task)  Bureaucracy is another important contributor to the classical approach to mgmt was Max Weber, an organizational form that emphasizes the control and coordination of its members through a strict chain of command, formal rules and procedures, high specialization, and centralized decision making  Superior form of organizing, coordinating, and controlling human work activities  Human relations movement emerged as mgmt scholars began to recognize that the psychological attributes of individual workers (needs, attitudes) and social forces within work groups had important effects on behaviours  Fundamental to contingency approach is the idea that there is no one-best, universal principles and same is true for OB  Integrative model of OB  Two Primary individual outcomes – the right-most portion of the model, two employees have 2 primary gals for their working lives: to perform their jobs well and to remain a member of the organization that they respect. Likewise, most managers have two primary goals for their employees: maximize performance and to ensure that they stay with the firm for a significant length of time o Job Performance o Commitment (Retention and Withdrawal Behaviours) o Starting points  Individual Mechanisms Linked to Outcomes (they affect job performance and commitment DIRECTLY) Chapter 1 – What is OB? o Job Satisfaction captures what employees feel when thinking about their job and daily work o Stress reflects employee’s psychological responses to job demands that exceed their capacities o Motivation captures energetic forces that drive employee’s work effort o Trust, Justice, and Ethics reflect the degree to which employees feel that their company conducts business with fairness, honesty, and integrity o Learning and Decision Making deals with how employees gain job knowledge and how they use that job knowledge to make accurate judgments on the job  The Relation between the Individual Mechanisms and Outcomes occur within an Individual, Group and Organizational Context (influence individual mechanisms and individual outcomes) o Personality, Cultural Values and Ability influence how we behave at work and kinds of tasks that interest us, and might account for our respons
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