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Chapter 12

Leadership Styles and Behaviours - Chapter 12.docx
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Department
Organization Studies
Course
ORGS 1000
Professor
Frank Miller
Semester
Winter

Description
Leadership Styles and Behaviours - Leadership: use of power and influence to direct activities of followers toward goal achievement; can affect followers’ interpretation of events, organization of work activities, commitment to key goals, relationships with others and access to cooperation and support - Unit-Focused Approach: asks all members of the unit to fill out surveys, then averages responses to get measure of leader effectiveness - DYAD-Focused Approach: ask members of the unit to fill out surveys in reference to particular relationship with the leader. Differences across people indicate differentiation into “in-groups” and “out-groups” within the unit - Leader-member exchange theory: describes how leader-member relationships are developed over time on a dynamic basis - Role taking: phase in a leader-follower relationship when a leader provides an employee with job expectations and the follower tires to meet hose expectations - Role making: phase in a leader-follower relationship when a follower voices his/her own expectations for the relationship; results in free-flowing exchange of opportunities and resources for activities and effort - High quality exchange: frequent one on one exchanges of information between leader and member, mutual influence, support and attention - Out-groups: characterized by lower levels of communication, trust, respect and obligation Why Some Leaders are More Effective than Other - Leader effectiveness: degree to which the leader`s actions result in achievement of unit`s goals, continued commitment of employees and development of trust, respect and obligation in leader-member dyads - Leader emergence: process of becoming a leader in the first place Characteristic Linked to Linked to Effectiveness Emergence High Yes No Conscientiousnes s Low Yes No agreeableness Openness to Yes Yes experience Extraversion Yes Yes Cognitive ability Yes Yes Energy level Yes Yes Stress tolerance Yes Yes Self-confidence Yes Yes Low neuroticism No No Leader’s Decision – Making Styles - Decision making style reflects the process the leader uses to generate and choose from set of alternatives to solve a problem; captures how a leader decides - Important to recognize whether a leader takes all decisions by themselves or involves others in the process as well Autocratic - Leader makes the decision alone without asking for opinions or suggestions of the employees - Employees may provide information but are not asked to provide solutions or suggestions o Example: professors deciding which topics to read and weighting of assignments and exams without consulting the students Consultative - Leader presents problem to employees asking for their opinions and suggestion before making the decision by himself Facilitative - Leader presents the problem to a group of employees and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure their own opinion receives equal weight as compared to those of other employees - Leader becomes a facilitator rather than decision maker in this approach Delegative - Leader gives employees responsibility for making the decisions within some set of specified boundaries - Leader provides necessary resources and encouragement - Example: Nike finds people that care about the product/company and let them handle the details When Are Styles Most Effective? - Allowing employees to participate in decision making activities increase job satisfaction - Essential to consider quality of the resulting decision to determine which style is best - Many employees consider meetings as interruptions in their work - Time driven model of leadership: suggests that importance of the decision, expertise of the leader and competence of the followers combine to make some decision-making styles more effective than others in a given situation Seven factors influencing decision making: decision significance, importance of commitment, leader expertize, likelihood of commitment, shared objectives, employees expertise and teamwork skills - Autocratic: reserved for decisions that rare insignificant or for which employee commitment is unimportant; leader expertise must be high and high level of trust should exist - Delegative: reserved for situations where employees have strong team work skills and are not going to solely commit to whatever the leader says Day-to-Day Leadership Behaviours - Leaders engage in mix of initiating, organizing, producing, socializing, integrating, communicating, recognizing and representing behaviours Initiating Structure - Pattern of behaviour where the leader defines and
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