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Chapter 2

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Organization Studies
ORGS 1000
Frank Miller

Job Performance Best Buy - World’s largest consumer electronic retailer; world’s fastest growing speciality retailer and e-tailer of consumer electronics - Operates under Futureshop Banner - Instituted several innovative management practices; employees are drivers of economic performance o Results Only Work Environment: responsibility for managing performance of work placed on employee assigned to do that work o Employee can come and go as they please; job performance assessed based on performance results o Essential to give employees control over how they can work best o System measures job performance as opposed to accomplishing more than corporate goals; helping others, saving resources, improving working conditions, etc… Job Performance Defined - Employee behaviours that contribute positively/negatively to the accomplishment of organizational goals o Includes behaviours that are within the control of employees 1) Employees contribute to their organization in ways that go beyond bottom-line results - Valuing employees strictly on basis of results may give inaccurate picture of that person’s worth to the company 2) Results are often influenced by factors that go beyond the employee’s control; product quality, competition, equipment, technology, budget constraints, co-workers and supervision 3) Performance feedback based on results does not provide people with info they need to improve their behaviour; results do not tell you how to reverse a bad year What Does it Mean To Be a Good Performer? - Task performance and citizenship behaviour have positive influence to the organization - Counterproductive behaviour contributes negatively to the organization Task Performance - Includes employee behaviour that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into goods/services that the organization produces - Set of explicit obligations that an employee must fulfill to receive compensation and continued employment Routine Task Performance - Involves well known responses to demands that occur in a normal, routine or predictable way - Employees tend to act in programmed ways that vary little from one instance to another - Flight attendants robotically demonstrating how to insert a seatbelt into the buckle Adaptive Task Performance - Involves employee responses to task demands that are novel, unusual or unpredictable - Air France flight 385 suddenly skidded off the runway; all passengers safely rescued within moments - Flight attendants do receive training, though executing these behaviours effectively differs fundamentally Creative Task Performance - Degree to which individuals develop ideas or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful o Example; attractiveness and comfort generally accepted design elements for swimsuits o Steel plated design is neither useful nor is it creative o Two-piece design, although not novel today, but would be both creative and useful in 1946 - Increase in value of creative performance can be explained by rapid technological change and intense competition - Task performance behaviours identified by conducting job analysis: process by which an organization determines requirements of specific jobs o List of all activities involved in a job is generated o Each activity is rated by subject matter experts o Activities that are rated highly in terms of importance and frequency are retained and used to define task performance - More informative to get feedback on behaviours that are under your own control - National Occupational Classification: national database of occupations in Canada, organization more than 30000 job titles into 520 occupational group descriptions o Used by many to compile, analyze and communicate information about occupations o NOC is unable to convey unique ways these activities are enacted o Information from NOC should be supplemented with information regarding behaviours that support the organization’s values and strategies Organizational Behaviour on Screen: Hancock - Hancock got up from his hangover to catch the bad guys, but continued to drink whiskey - He caused damage to city buildings by unnecessarily tossing the bad guys’ car around - Often behaves carelessly and costs citizens of LA a lot of money - He could have lifted a car off the tracks rather than destroying the train Citizenship Behaviour - Voluntary employee activities that may/may not be rewarded but contribute to organization by improving overall quality for the setting in which work takes place - Employees engaging in behaviours not included in job description Interpersonal Citizenship Behaviour - Benefits co-workers and colleagues and involve assisting, supporting and developing other organizational members in a way that goes beyond normal job expectations - Helping: involves assisting co-workers who have heavy workloads, aiding them with personal matters, and showing new employees the ropes when they first arrive on the job - Courtesy: keeping co-workers informed about matters that are relevant to them because you never know what info may be useful to others - Sportsmanship: involves maintain a good attitude with co-workers, even when they have done something annoying or when the unit Is going through bad times - Essential to have positive team dynamics, promote trust and “we mentality” Organizational Citizenship Behaviour - Going beyond normal expectations to improve operations of the organizations and defending the organizations and being loyal to it o Voice: involves speaking up and offering constructive suggestions for change o Good citizens constructively change bad rules/policies rather than passively complaining about them o Civic virtue: refers to participating in company’s operations at deeper than normal level by attending voluntary meetings and functions, reading and keeping up with organizational announcements and keeping up with news that af
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