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Chapter 9

Personality, Cultural Values and Ability - Chapter 9.docx

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York University
Organization Studies
ORGS 1000
Frank Miller

Personality, Cultural Values, and Ability - Personality: structures and propensities inside a person that explain their characteristic patterns of thought, emotion and behaviour o Reflects what people are like and create their social reputation; the way they are perceived by those around tem o Collection of multiple traits: recurring trends in people`s responses to their environment - Cultural Values: shred beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in given culture that influence the expression of traits - Ability: relatively stable capabilities of people for performing particular range of related activities o Captures what people can do Nexen - Energy company and among largest oil and gas companies in Canada - Company seeks out individuals with technical skills, knowledge and abilities to be successful in their work - Company runs awareness training programs to educate employees on challenges and employment barriers How Can We Describe What Employees Are Like? The Big Five Taxonomy - Refers to five major dimensions of personality Conscientiousness - Reflects trails like being dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, and persevering - Accomplishment striving: strong desire to accomplish task related goals as means of expressing ones personality - Set higher goals for oneself and be more motivated to accomplish them Agreeableness - Reflects traits like being kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, courteous and warm - Communion striving: reflects strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as means of expressing ones personality - These people focus more on getting alone as oppose to getting ahead; but have stronger customer service skills (reluctant to react to conflict with criticism, threats or manipulations) Neuroticism - Reflects traits like being nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, jealous, and unstable - Negative affectivity: dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods like hostility, nervousness and annoyance - These people experience lower level of job satisfaction and tend to be less happy with their lives - View day to day challenges as very stressful - Locus of control: ones tendency to view the cause of events and personal outcomes as internally or externally controlled o Believe that luck, chance or fate dictates events that occur around them o Those with internal locus of control viewed as having autonomy, significance as well as fewer negative characteristics like ambiguity and conflict Openness to Experience - Reflects traits like being curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, and sophisticated - Jobs that are fluid, dynamic and have rapid changes in job demands benefit from openness - Training and curiosity gives employees built desire to learn new things - Key diver of creative though; essential to stimulate innovation Extraversion - Reflects traits like being talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold and dominant - Zero acquaintance situation: situation in which two people have just met; easy way to find out about your personality - Status striving: reflects a strong desire to obtain power and influence within social structure as means of expressing ones personality - These people are very energetic and outgoing, want to gain strong reputation and believe in “moving up” - Positive affectivity: dispositional tendency to experience pleasant engaging moods like enthusiasm, excitement and elation o Associated with more positive events; joining a club/team, going on vacation, getting raise, etc… Cultural Values - Culture: shared values, beliefs, motives, identities and interpretations that result from common experiences of members of a society that are transmitted across generations o Influences development of our personality and shapes the way our traits are expressed - Cultural values come to reflect the way things should be done in a given society - Hofstede’s study showed that employees working in different countries tended to prioritize different values - Project GLOBE (Global leadership and organizational behaviour effectiveness) – examines impact of culture on effectiveness of leaders attributes, behaviours and practices o Gender egalitarianism: culture promotes gender equality and minimizes role differences o Assertiveness: culture values assertiveness, confrontation and aggressiveness in social relationships o Future orientation: culture engages in planning and investment in future while delaying individual/collective gratification o Performance orientation: culture encourages and rewards members for excellence and performance improvements o Humane orientation: culture rewards and encourages members for being caring, kind, fair and generous - Ethnocentrism: one who views their cultural values as right and others as wrong; compromises effectiveness of international groups and organizations Individualism-Collectivism o Degree to which a culture has a loosely knit or tight social framework Power Distance o Degree to which a culture prefers equal or unequal power distribution Uncertainty Avoidance o Degree to which a culture tolerates or feels threatened by ambiguous situations Masculinity – Femininity o Degree to which a culture values stereotypically male or female traits Short-Term vs. Long-Term Orientation o Degree to which a culture stresses values that are past and present oriented or future oriented Organizational Behaviour Internationally - Failing to accept others’ cultural values hinders effectiveness of expatriates; makes them less likely to adjust and withdraw from the assignment o Cultural empathy: tendency to empathize with feeling, thoughts and behaviours of individuals with different cultural values o Open-mindedness: tendency to have open and unprejudiced attitude toward others’ values and norms o Emotional stability: tendency to remain calm in stressful situations encountered in foreign environments o Social initiative: be proactive when approaching social situation; aids in building connections o Flexibility: tendency to regard new situations as challenge and to adjust behaviours to meet that challenge What Does It Mean fo
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