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Chapter 11

Power, Influence and Negotiation - Chapter 11.docx

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Organization Studies
ORGS 1000
Frank Miller

Power, Influence and Negotiation Power, Influence and negotiation - Power: ability to influence the behaviour of others and resist unwanted influence in return o Does not mean if someone has the ability, that they will use their power to influence others o Refusal/resistance; can come in form of voicing of a dissenting opinion, refusal to perform specific behaviour Why are Some People More Powerful Than Others? Acquiring Power - Power may come from formal position Organizational Power 1) Legitimate Power: form of organizational power based on authority or position - These people have understood the right to ask others to do things that are considered within the scope of their authority - The higher up within an organization, the more the legitimate power - If used ineffectively; asking someone to wash our car, it can be a very weak form of power o Bosses follow up to verify compliance, make polite and clear requests within employees scope or authority 2) Reward Power: form of organizational power based on control of resources or benefits - Managers have control over raises, performance evaluations, awards and desirable job assignments - High reward power: those getting influenced believe that they will get rewards by behaving certain way o Bosses rewards that are fair and ethical, explain criteria for rewards, do not use rewards to manipulate others 3) Coercive Power: form of organizational power based on ability to hand out punishment - Operates on principle of fear - Managers have right to fire, demote, suspend or lower pay of an employee - Tends to result in negative feelings towards those that wield it (generally poor form of power) o Bosses provide ample warnings, use legitimate punishments, make consequences of violations and actions clear, investigate before following through Personal Power - Sometime about leaders that provides them additional capabilities to influence others - Strongly related to organization commitment and job performance 1) Expert Power: form of organizational power based on expertise or knowledge on which others depend - Those with record of high performance, ability to solve problems or specific knowledge can hold great influence o Bosses explain reasons for request, do not make rash and inconsistent statements, do not misrepresent facts, and act confidently 2) Referent Power: form of organizational power based on attractiveness and charisma of the leader - Derived from an affection, admiration or loyalty towards a specific individual’s - Leaders with good reputation, attractive personal qualities or charisma o Leaders show acceptance and positive regard, keep promises, make self-sacrifices, defend and stand up for others, are supporting and helpful Contingency Factors - The more dependent an individual or group is on you, the more influential you become to them - One can have high referent or expert power, but if working alone to perform tasks nobody sees, ability to influence others is reduced Contingencies of Power 1) Substitutability: degree to which people have alternatives in accessing the resources that a leader controls - Individuals that are able to control resources to which no one else has access can use their power to gain greater influence 2) Centrality: how important a person’s job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks - Those performing critical tasks and interact with others regularly have greater influential power 3) Discretion: degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own - If individual has freedom to make own decisions without being restrained by organizational rules = high discretionary power 4) Visibility: how aware others are of a leader and the resources that leader can provide - If everyone knows that someone has certain level of power, the ability to use that power to influence others is high Using Influence - Having power increases ability to influence behaviour; does not mean one will use or exert that power - Influence: use of an actual behaviour that causes behavioural or attitudinal changes in others o Influence can be seen as directional; occurs downward when managers influence employees o Can be lateral; peers influencing peers o Can be upwards; employees influencing managers o Influence is all relative Influence Tactics - There are many tactics that leaders can use to influence others Most Effective - Rational Persuasion: use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one o Shows that proposal is important and feasible; consistently successful in case of upward influence - Consultation: occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request o Increase commitment from the target, sees that his/her opinions are valued - Inspirational Appeal: tactic designed to appeal to target’s values and ideas; creates emotional/attitudinal reaction o Influencer must have insight into what kinds of things are important to the target - Collaboration: leader makes it easier for the target to complete the request; leader can help complete the task, provide required resource or remove obstacles that make task competition difficult Moderately Effective - Ingratiation: use of favours, compliments or friendly behaviours to make the target feel better about the influencer o Referred to as sucking up; especially when used in upward influence o Effective when used as long-term strategy - Personal Appeals: when requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty; stronger the friendship, more successful the attempts is likely to be - Exchange Tactic: used when requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request; requires that the requestor has something of value to offer - Apprising: occurs when the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally o Focuses solely on benefit to the target as opposed to simple logic/benefits to the group/organization o Benefit is not something that the requester gives to the target but something that results from action Least Effective - Can result in resistance from the target - Pressure: use of coercive power through threats and demands; only brings benefits over short term - Coalitions: occurs when the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target; these people can be peers, subordinates or targets superiors - Influence tactics tend to be most successful when used in combination - Influence tactics that tend to be most successful are those that are softer in nature; take advantage of personal rather than organizational forms of power Responses to Influencing Tactics - Internalization: target agrees with and becomes committed to the request; results in employees putting forth greatest level of effort in accomplishing what they are asked to do o Reflects shift in both behaviours and attitudes of employees - Compliance: targets of influence are willing to of what the leader asks but do it with degree of uncertainty o Reflects shift in behaviours of employees but not attitudes o Allows leaders to accomplish their purpose but does not bring about highest levels of employee effort and dedication - Resistance: target refuses to perform a request and puts fort an effort to avoid having to do it o Could be in form of making excuses, trying to influence requestor in return or refusing to carry out request o Request itself can be unreasonable and inappropriate Power and Influence in Action - People have power through
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