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Chapter 6

ORGS 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Goal Setting


Department
Organization Studies
Course Code
ORGS 1000
Professor
Greg Milavsky
Chapter
6

Page:
of 1
Internal(&"External("FORCES"that"determine:
1)"Direc6on:"What"employees"do"
2)"Intensity:"How(hard"employee"works
3)"Persistence:"How(long(employee"works
CHAPTER 6: MOTIVATION
WHY ARE SOME EMPLOYEES
MORE MOTIVATED?
DEFINITION
EXPECTANCY THEORY !""Process"employees"go"through"to"make"choices"(Direc6on)"of"whether"to"perform"a"task
R""$%&'()*+(,"Theory
"##S)"The"existence"of"specific"&"difficult"GA*.-
###P""Percep6ons"of"$I68),
#?""Feelings"of"T-,(HA.A@8(*.#$7&AK'57'+)
!"#$%&'()*+(,#!"Belief"that"I"am"able"to"complete(the"ac6ons"(My"capability?)
"""Shaped(by:(-'./0'1(*(,#0#self!confidence"of"the"capability"to"perform
""""""""""""""""-'./0'1(*(,#is"determined(by:(
2(Past%accomplishments%/%success%with%similar%jobs%in%past
%Vicarious%experiences%/%observa4on%of%others%to%judge%own%capabili4es
%Verbal%persuasion%/%pep%talks%
%Emo7onal%cues%9%feelings%that%determine%confidence%levels%
3" 4+-)567'+)*.8),"!"Belief"that"if"I"complete"certain"ac6ons,"then"I"will"achieve"the"outcome((Clear"path?)
9" :*.'+('#!#Value"of"the"perceived"outcome((Whats"in"it"for"me?)
""""""""""" " More(value(when(it(sa9sfies(+'';-#!"mo6va6ng"hunger"compelling"ac6on"for"its"sa6sfac6on
" """"""""Meaning%of%money%/%fullls%mul4ple%needs%9%economic%&%symbolic%value
GOAL SETTING THEORY !""Goals"are"drivers"of"how(hard"(Intensity)"&"how(long"(Persistence)"of"eort
<&'(8=(#>#?81(6.)#@A*.-#B"higher(level"of"task"performance
"""Shapes:(-'./0-')#@A*.-#0#internalized"goals"to"monitor"own"progress
"""Triggering:()*-C#-)5*)'@8'-#0#learning"plans"to"achieve"successful"performance
"Higher"level"of(task"performance"depends"on:
"""8"#D'';E*(C#0#progress"updates"on"work"goals
###88"#F*%#(A7&.'%8),#0#how"complicated"task"is"
###888"#GA*.#(A778)7'+)#!"how"accepted"&"determined"person"is"in"reaching"goal"
A)
EQUITY THEORY
!"Balance"between"an"employees"inputs(and"outcomes(="RATIO
!Input:!effort,'performance,'skills'&'abili4es,'educa4on,'experience,'training,'seniority'
Outputs:'pay,'seniority'&'fringe'benefits,'status,'symbols,'sa4sfying'supervision,'workplace'perks,'intrinsic'rewards
RATIO"compared"to"(A7&*58-A+#A)H'5#0#another"person"who"is"a"frame"of"reference"for"judging"equity"
'Internal(comparisons(/(comparing'oneself'to'someone'in'same!company
!External(comparisons(/(comparing'oneself'to'someone'in'different'company"
RATIO"is"either"a)"Balanced"="EQUITY"
" """""""""""""b)"Imbalanced"="INEQUITY"!"'I68),#;8-)5'--#0#internal"tension"alleviated"by"restoring(balance"in"ra6os"
" """""
"Ra6o"lower"than"comparison"others"="J+;'505'K*5;#inequity"
"""""Restoring!balance:!Increase%outcomes%9%talk%to%boss%OR%shrink%inputs%9%lower%effort
"Ra6o"greater(than"comparison"others"="LM'505'K*5;#inequity""
"""""Restoring!balance:%Grow%inputs%9%greater%effort
%%%%
%Cogni7ve%distor7on%/%restoring%balance%mentally
%Change%your%comparison%other%
!"Employees"create"mental"ledger"of"outcomes"they"get"from(inputs,"rela6ve"to"comparison"other
Restore(balance"by"also:
PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT
!"Intrinsic""belief"that"tasks"are"contribu6ng"to"larger"purpose
!" N'*+8+@/6.+'--#0#goals"appeal"to"passions
3" <'./0;')'578+*OA+#0sense"of"choice"regarding"work"tasks
9" PA7&')'+('#0#feeling"capable"of"performing"successfully"
Q" 47&*()#0#feeling"that"they"are"making"progress"toward"fulfilling"their"
B)
C)
D)
COMPENSATION SYSTEMS MOTIVATION
Individual/focused%/%Piece%rate,%merit%pay,%lump9sum%bonuses,%recogni4on%
Unit/focused%/%Gainsharing
Organiza7on/focused%/%Profit%sharing
$%)58+-8(#NAOM*OA+#0#external"“Someone"wants"you"to"do"it”"
4+)58+-8(#NAOM*OA+#0#internal"“You"want"to"do"it”"
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JOB PERFORMANCE
ORGS 1000