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PHYS 1510 (1)
Chapter 1

chapter 1 notes 2011

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Physics and Astronomy
PHYS 1510
Cody Storry

Physics 1510: Unit 1 1.1: Standard of length, mass and time • Fundamental units of length is meters o The meter is the distance travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 second • Fundamental unit of mass is kilogram o The kilogram is defined as the mass of a specific platinum iridium alloy cylinder kept at the international Bureau of weights and measures at Sèvres, France. • Fundamental unit of time is second o The second is defined as 9 192 631 700 times the period of oscillation of radiation from the cesium atom • Units: 6 o Micro 10  symbol μ o Milli  10  symbol m o Kilo  10  symbol k 6 o Mega  10  symbol M 1.2: The building blocks of matter • 1 kg is approximately equal to 2 lb • Inside the nucleus of an atom there are protons and neutrons. • Protons and neutrons are composed of quarks • Protons consist of 2 up quarks and 1 down quark • Neutrons consist of 2 down quarks and 1 up quark • The up quark carries a positive charge of +⅔ • The down quark carries a negative charge of -⅓ • A proton has a net charge of +1 • A neutron has a net charge of 0 • Water molecules are composed of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. The hydrogen atoms contain 1 electron each, and the oxygen atom brings eight electrons. The resulting molecule (H 2) contains ten electrons. • The nucleus of the deuterium only contains one neutron and one proton in it. • No, electrons are not made of quarks, like protons and neutrons, because electrons are leptons and are not known to be composed of any sub particles. • The diameter of an atom ranges approximately from 0.1 to 0.5 nanometer. 1.3: Dimensional Analysis • Quantities can only be added or subtracted if the have the same quantities (example: kg, s, m) • Velocity  [v]= L/T (Length divided by time) [v] = at (Acceleration multiplied by time) • Area  [a]= L 2 • Acceleration  [a]= L/T 2 2 • Distance travelled given that you DID NOT start from rest  x=at • Distance travelled given that you DID start from rest  x= ½at 2 1.4: U
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