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Chapter 1

007 McMichael - Chapter 1 - Summary Outline (Ch01_SummaryOutline).doc

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York University
Political Science
POLS 1090
Bruce Smardon

McMichaelDevelopment and Social Change 5eInstructors ResourcesChapter 1Development Theory and RealityChapter Summary The chapter begins by examining the ecological and social crises stemming from our current consumerbased practices of globalization and development and identifies the obstacles and possibilities for global efforts toward sustainability It then examines how the idea and practice of development emerged during the colonial era that socially engineered nonEuropean societies by reconstructing labor systems and disorganizing the social psychology of subjectsExposure to European liberal discourse fueled anticolonial movements for independenceSpecifying development as consumption privileges market as vehicle of social change Moreover theorization of development as a series of evolutionary stages as posited by Rostows The Stages of Economic Growth as A NonCommunist Manifest naturalizes the process whether it occurs on a national or an international stage Because of continuing First World dependence on raw materials from the Third World some societies were more equal than others in their capacity to traverse Rostows stages and a global theoretical context is provided by Dependency analysis and Wallersteins Worldsystem analysisConcepts of commodity chains food miles and ghost acres which help illuminate the social and environmental linkages of global production are then introducedAs global interdependencies deepen global inequalities expandThe interconnections among the lifestyles of people in the global north and south suggest that such relationships are mediated by political and economic policiesIn other words the global market is not natural but rather a political constructThe postcolonial world order emerged from the combined force of decolonization politics and the new model of publicly regulated capitalist markets The development project 1940s1970s was an internationally orchestrated program of national economic growth with foreign financial technological and military assistanceGovernments focused on implementing human rightsbased social contracts with their citizensThe globalization project 1970s 2000s superimposed open markets across national boundaries liberalized trade and investment rules and privatized public goods and services Corporate rights gained priority over the social contract and redefined development as a private undertakingThe neoliberal doctrine of market freedoms has been met with growing contention symbolized by the antineoliberal social revolt in Latin America MiddleEast rebellions and growing weight of China and India in the world political economy Thus Polanyis double movement is alive andwell An incipient sustainability project heavily influenced by the climate emergency is forming While China leadsthe green technology race a myriad of environmental justice movements across the world push states business leaders and citizens towards a new formulation of development as managing the future sustainably In this context of growing contention and with the emergency of climate change McMichael asks whether the global market will remain as dominant as in the past Chapter OutlineIIntroductionaDevelopment today is increasingly about how we survive the future and reverse our ecological footprint rather than how we improve on the pastiHow we manage energy descent and adapt to serious ecological deficits and climatic disruptions will define our existence iiWho belongs to which blocGlobal North or Global Southand therefore most responsible for emissions serves to distract authorities from substantive actionstbAnother crisis confronting 21 century nationstates global crisis of unemployment and debtiCompromised by mushrooming public austerity policies across the nationstate systemiiTested in the global South from the 1980s and now in societies of the NorthcDevelopment ideal of a social contract between governments and citizens is crumbling as hardwon social rights and entitlements erodedBook is a guide to the rise and transformation of development as a vector of global social change over the last two centuriesIIDevelopment History and PoliticseDevelopment had its origins in the colonial era 1
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