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Chapter 5

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Political Science
POLS 2940
Sandra Withworth

InternationalRelations Chapter 5 Making Foreign Policy  Foreign policies are strategies used by governments to guide their international arena  Intersections of domestic and international policies  Comparative foreign policy is study of various states compared to other similar states and outcomes  3 characteristics of “comparative foreign policy”:  Size  Wealth  Democratic participation in government  Another approach uses:  Population  Natural resources  Level of technology  Depending on non above, every state has the capability to make irrational and rational war decisions  Political scientists can predict ones actions based on cultural and historical events of a nations  Institutions like the UN might also influence a states actions  Foreign policy is a process of decision making Decision Perception making Monitoring Action Situations Effect International and domestic politics InternationalRelations Models of Decision-Making: The Rational Actor Model Rational Actors Model  Actors calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action  Realist chose the calrify goals best in the outcome sitatuion investegate the Order by consequnces importance list the alternatices  Complicated than displayed above due to having more goals Individual Decision-Makers  Decisions of rational individuals are what make world history  Realist think that individuals and states are rational and make the best decisions to achieve the goal and state interest  Physiological factors also influence individual actors  At least 3 systematic ways In which individual decision-makers diverge into rational actor model 1. Misperceptions and selective perceptions 2. Information screening (not all of the information is given or it might be misleading) 3. Emotional reflections that actors might go through while making the decision- As much as decision making tries to be rational, states and individuals might have emotional influences towards doing or not doing a decision 4. Cognitive balance- limitations of the human brain in making decisions  A mirror image is when both sides of the conflict maintain a very similar image of each other InternationalRelations Human Security  Pearsonian internationalism – a foreign policy that is devoted to the international economic cooperation  During the cold war, most people associated security to national security  Seven elements of security:  Economic  Food  Health  Environmental  Community  Personal  Political  Canada banned landmines to help promo
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