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Summary - Bull (Does order exist in world politics).docx

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Political Science
POLS 2940
Glenn Goshulak

Text: Essential Readings in World Politics Article: Does order exist? Author: Bull  Three competing schools of thought: o Hobbes: realist  IR = a state of war  Each one for themselves  Peace = recovery from one war, preparation for next war  Constant conflict between states that cannot be resolved  Zero-sum: interests of one state exclude interests of another  Pursue state’s self-interests, no regard to moral, legal or other restrictions  Machiavelli: state conducts IR in a moral/legal vacuum  Hegel: the moral/legal “right” is the state’s self-assertion o Kant: universalist  Potential community of mankind at work in IR  Transnational social bonds  Interests of all mankind are the same (community approach)  Conflicts of interest exist, but only superficially  Cosmopolitan international society will overthrow system of states o Grotius: internationalist (English school of thought)  IR takes place within international society  Society of states (realist: STATES, and universalist: SOCIETY)  Are against each other, but limited by common laws/rules/institutions  States are members of the international society and they function as a society  Participate in the society’s happenings  Are bound by rules/institutions  Are “against” each other but know their boundaries  Absolute gains through behaviour modification/improvement since
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