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POLS 2950 (1)
Chapter 1

Summary of Course kit: Ch. 1, 3, 4, 6

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Political Science
POLS 2950
Simone Bohn

Week 1- “How War Made States, and Vice Versa” (Tilly) -trend of “more frequent, deadlier wars” as the centuries go on, 19 more deadlier than the 18 and 20 of the 19 etc th -lesser powers: more wars but smaller in size; super powers: less wars, but deadlier - not like humans have become more aggressive however, murder rates have declined rapidly from the 18 to the 19 century -powerholders (nobles etc.) had control of concentrated means of force that could, if combined, match or overwhelm those of the state -private deployment of violence -since 17 century, rulers made it criminal for citizens to bear arm, outlawed private armies, armed agents of the state; an imbalance of power between the state and their citizens - USA different in that regard: it allows its citizens to bear arms, but its violence rates are higher -link between warmaking and state structuring strengthened -State (Weber): a state is a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory”) -army became a significant organization within the state & its construction and maintenance brought complementary organizations: treasuries, supply services, tax bureaux -mobilizations for war provided occasions on which states expanded, consolidated & created new forms of political organization -why wars occurred at all? coercion works -Europe constantly had external forces threatening their power, which led to war among multiple states, China however didn’t have external threats but internal dissident so its know for its rebellions &civil wars -with aircraft, tanks, missiles & nucleur bombs, the death toll of 20 century wars far outshadows previous centuries -state budgets taxes and debts reflective of wars, before 1400 no state had a national th budget but come 16 century war multipled state expenditures & future revenues serves as security for long term debt -France’s debts & taxes soared in 1520 when Francis I started borrowing -similar situation in Britain, all of Europe’s warmaking states had same experience -approval and support needed for war carried out by monarch by their subjects -rulers collected tribute,taxes, levies to protect their people (so in exchange for protection from themselves and outside forces, the people paid taxes for war and volunteered to be in the army) -I -at the state the division between soldiers (armed forces protecting against external enemies) and police (armed force controlling the national pop.) happened slowly and never became complete th -only during the 19 century “did European states establish uniformed, salaried, bureaucratic police forces specialized in control of the civil population” - armies free to concentrate on external conquest - 1500s brought focus on gunpowder, and those who used it and could successfully protect themselves against it were advantageous th -Dutch Republic, Venice and Portugal leading states during the 17 century due to powerful navies -but states that recruited huge armies from their own resources (France, Britain and Prussia) were the most successful -REFER TO PAGE 6 IF NECESSARY TO KNOW ABOUT THE TENSION BETWEEN FRANCE, SPAIN AND ITALY DURING THE LATE 1400S -ALSO THE CONTRACTION OF THE SYPHYLLIS PLAGUE - French invasion of 1494 ended the round of small scale wars -Italy had become Europe’s tug of war where Spain occupied one area, and Habsburgs another th th -during the 16 and 17 century (especially) armies expanded, & became big business -mercenaries: soldiers without any allegiance offered up their services, fighting wars for payment ex. Sir John Hawkwood, English mercenary given Florentine (Italy) citizenship, pension for life and exemption from taxation. -still honoured today -powerful states strove to limit their dependence: kept own generals in place of leadership but hired lesser soldiers, but smaller states rented whole armies including generals -reliance on mass conscription, confiscatory taxation and conversion of production made any state vulnerable to popular resistance & answerable to popular demands -relationship between war making & civilian politics altered fundamentally -why mercenaries became unpopular and conscription a priority? armed forces w/ contract obligation to crown made rebellion, laziness more likely -state its own citizens fought better, more reliably & more cheaply -few large states ever able to pay for military expenditures using current revenues, usually borrow or credit -ability to borrow more and more became crucial for war making, and military success -fiscal power gave France enormous advantage in wars to come (p.11) -national debts arose largely from borrowing for and during wars -15 century, European powers moved to creation of empires far outside continent -spices imported from India, & slaves imported from Congo, Angola, Senegambia -European imperialism -early targets of European attack were Muslims, for access to the East, but 15 century, they started fighting each other -Dutch became world’s greatest naval and commercial power (17 century) then Britain displaced the Dutch -CONCLUSION: state, military and economy strongly linked factors that affected their development: population support, commercialization of economy, wartime mobilization dependence Week 2- “Of the causes, creation and definition of a state” (Hobbes) -laws of nature: justice, equity, modesty, mercy & doing to others what we would like done to us= contrary to natural passions: partiality, pride, revenge etc. -every man relies on his own self, and his priorities -the greater spoils gained the greater their honour; much the same as cities & kingdoms: enlarge their dominions for fear of invasion, weaken neighbours with force; only for these cities to be remembered and honoured afterward -without a common enemy, men turn on each other and become divided, but if they have a unified government then they can be kept in line -men different from animals because they are in competition for honour & dignity, envy, hatred & war arises and see reason (faults in the administration) -common power: defend them from invasion of foreigners, injuries of one another, secure & nourish them -appoint one man or group -everyone must give consent and give up right to the one in power called a COMMONWEALTH, rights of individual transferred to the sovereign; only right retained is right of self preservation -LEVIATHAN: immortal god, to which we owe our peace & defence -COMMONWEALTH: power, strength, form the wills of all, peace at home, aid against the enemies abroad -SOVERIGN: this one person, has sovereign powers to do whatever he deems as necessary to protect the commonwealth -to attain sovereign power: natural force (involuntary)=make one submit; authority ex. father to his children, government to its people, use violence, war (Commonwealth by acquisition) -voluntarily in confidence in their leader (Political Commonwealth or Commonwealth by Institution) OF THE THINGS THAT WEAKEN OR TEND TO THE DISSOLUTION OF A COMMONWEALTH -commonwealths should be secure from perishing by internal diseases -weak and dissolution of the commonwealth because of a defective commonwealth because a) sovereign lack absolute power b) moral issue determined by every private individual rather than civil law c) subjects do not hold civil law above their conscience d) subjects maintain faith in the supernatural rather than learned doctrines of the civil government, challenging the sovereign’s authority over knowledge e) sovereign subject to the law he creates f) subjects maintain sense of individual propriety over personal goods, resisting sovereign’s rightful claim to all properties of commonwealth g) sovereign power is divided h) commonwealth imitates the government of other nations i) commonwealth imitates the Greeks and Romans j) it divides civil and spiritual/religious authority k) the government is a mixed one, of varying modes of administration *go back and reread this part, still kind of blurry VERY IMPORTANT READING FOR SOMALIA FAILED STATE OF THE OFFICE OF THE SOVEREIGN REPRESENTATIVE -office of the sovereign is designed to “procure the safety of the people to which he is obliged by the law of nature -when this is no longer fulfilled, the soul of the Leviathan has disappeared, it’s a corpse READ THIS PART AGAIN PLZ Week 3- “From Conflict Resolution to State Disintegration” (Rubin) -The Soviet Union and the United States devised a plan as an exercise in hegemonic cooperation under the aegis of the UN -US & USSR would ask the Security General’s office to sponsor interim gov’t -use influence with regional states & w/ Afghan clients to assure this plan was carries out & for stability -but USSR dissolved, US disengaged cooperation became moot Attempt to implement U.N plan -UN security general Cuellar tried to secure cooperation with all states: Saudi Arabia, Pakistan -Soviet all for it as well, meeting the last of the demands of the US and UN -foreign ministers of USSR, Russia, Tajikistan met in Moscow w/ Pakistan and Iran and after the meeting called for the replacement of the current government in Kabul by an Islamic interim which would hold elections with aid of Organization of Islamic Conference & UN (in that order) -Soviet promised to terminate weapon supplies & withdraw military -Cuellar invited reps from US, USSR, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia & Iran to a “tea party” but Iran declined to meet with USA -1 proposal from Moscow: establish joint government between mujahidin & non- communists -promote negotiations among the Afghan parties, to resolve their issues -power sharing negotiations became impossible, resistance parties refused to meet with the current government -organizing a multiparty council proving impossible -any Afghan who tried to convene a gathering would be suspected of promoting his own power, and outsiders ex. UN lack legitimacy -Najibullah agreed to resign, and gave his resignation transferring power and authority to the interim government chosen by the UN -however the dissolution of Soviet Union, cutoff of aid, & lack of interim gov’t deprived Najibullah of any power to transfer -a power vacuum was created that anyone could fill -four armed groups fought for power in Kabul, made up of different ethnics and different sources of foreign support ex. Uzbekistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia -cause of conflict changed, became a struggle for power rather than an ethnic war fueled by hatred -when shifting power relations tore the country apart, outside powers & afghan groups tried reinstating legitimate government -divided social powers, multiple armed groups & end of major states thwarted that effort -negotiations for peace -Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia & Uzbekistan worked to ensure forces supported by their rivals would not get too powerful -Najibullah controlled Dostum by paying him but once that payment ceased Dostum and his men turned on him -list of “pretransition council composed of impartial personalitites” from the UN would take power and authority over current government and council would choose an interim gov’t -under severe pressure from US & Pakistan major leaders agreed -however, at last minute two parties backed out and chaos was invoked, the airport was seized, Najibullah was blocked from leaving Afghanistan and was denounced as a hated dictator -Massoud rejected the UN interim plan, believing the Peshawar leaders could create an interim gov’t on their own -Massoud & Dostum entered Kabul to expel Khalqi-hizbi forces -parties (except Hikmatyar) reached an agreement for a six month interim government & the Islamic state of Afghanistan was established -government relied on Massoud & Dostum forces as Massoud was made minister of defence -Hikmatyar bombarded the city w/ rockets & denounced ISA as a disguided communist regime -fighting between Iran backed Shia & Arab backed Salafi Sunni groups took many lives -after six-months of interim gov’t, an election for a real gov’t was supposed to occur but the fighting & destruction of Kabul made that impossible -but finally a government and president was elected though corruptly as the same interim president was re-elected, many believing it to be manipulated -UN now dismissed Afghanistan but Pakistan & Saudi Arabia attempted to bring Sunni & Shia party leaders together -sunni & shia party leaders signed an agreement where Rabbani stayed as president but Hikmatayar became prime minister -disagreed over who should be defence minister & Rabbani attempt assassinated when on his way to meet Hikmatyar -between apr
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