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Chapter 1

Psychology- Chap. 1.docx

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis

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Psychology- Themes and Variations Lorenz Sol Chapter 1- The Evolution of Society From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed - The term psychology comes from two Greek words, psyche, meaning the soul, and logos, referring to the study of a subject. - In the 16 century, psyche was used to refer to the soul, spirit, or mind, as distinguished from the th body (Boring, 1966). Not until the 18 century did the term psychology gain more than rare usage among scholars. By that time, it had acquired its literal meaning, “the study of the mind.” A New Science Is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall - The philosophers and physiologists who were interested in the mind viewed questions as fascinating issues within their respective fields. - It was a German professor, Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), who eventually changed this view. Wundt mounted a campaign to make psychology an independent discipline rather than a stepchild of philosophy or physiology. Wundt’s appeal was successful and German universities were in a healthy period of expansion, so resources were available for new resources. Furthermore, the intellectual climate favoured the scientific approach that Wundt advocated. - In 1879, Wundt succeeded in establishing the first formal laboratory for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig. In deference to this landmark event, historians have christened 1879 as psychology’s “date of birth.” - Wundt’s campaign has been so successful that today he is widely characterized as the founder of psychology. - Wundt (1874) declared that the new psychology should be a science modelled after fields such as physics and chemistry. According to Wundt, the subject matter of the new science for psychology’s primary focus was consciousness—the awareness of immediate experience. Thus, psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience. This demanded that the methods psychologists used to investigate the mind be as scientific as those of chemists and physicist. The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism - Structuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward Titchener, an Englishman who emigrated to the U.S in 1892 and taught for decades at Cornell University. - Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements related. The structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images. - To examine the contents of consciousness, the structuralists depended on the method of introspection, the careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience. Introspection required tra
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