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Chapter 10

Psychology- Chapter 10 Book Notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Psychology- Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion Motivation involves goal-directed behaviour. Drive Theories Organisms seek to maintain homeostasis, a state of physiological equilibrium or stability. A drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension. When individuals experience a drive, theyre motivated to pursue actions that will lead to drive reduction. Incentive Theories An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivated behaviour. Ex. Ice cream, steak, approval from friends, an A on an exam, etc. Drive and incentive models of motivation are often contrasted as push versus pull theories. Drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions. Incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions. According to drive theories, the source of motivation lies within the organism. And with incentive theories, the source of motivation lies outside the organism, in the environment. Expectancy-value models of motivation are incentive theories that take this reality into account. Ones motivation to pursue a particular course of action will depend on two factors: (1) Expectancy about ones chances of attaining the incentive and (2) the value of the desired incentive. Thus, your motivation to pursue a promotion at work will depend on your estimate of the likelihood that you can snare the promotion (expectancy) and on how appealing the promotion is to you (value). Evolutionary Theories Psychologists who take an evolutionary perspective say dominance provides a reproductive or survival advantage. The need for dominance is thought to be greater in men than women because it could facilitate males reproductive success in a variety of ways, including (1) females may prefer mating with dominant males, (2) dominant males may poach females from subordinate males, (3) dominant males may intimidate male rivals in competition for sexual access, and (4) dominant males may acquire more material resources, which may increase mating opportunities. The Range and Diversity of Human Motives Most theories (evolutionary theories being a notable exception) distinguish between biological motives that originate in bodily needs, such as hunger, and social motives that originate in social experiences, such as the need for achievement. Motivation of Hunger and Eating Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger There is an association between stomach contractions and the experience of hunger. Cannon theorized that stomach contractions cause hunger. This theory was eventually discredited. Theories of hunger focus on (1) the role of the brain, (2) blood sugar level, and (3) hormones. Brain Regulation The hypothalamus is a tiny structure involved in the regulation of a variety of biological needs related to survival. The lateral (LH) and ventromedial (VMH) areas of the hypothalamus are elements in the neural circuitry that regulates hunger but are not the key elements and are not simple on-off centres. Today scientists believe that another area of the hypothalamusthe paraventricular nucleus (PVN)plays a larger role in the modulation of hunger. Contemporary theories of hunger focus more on neural circuits that pass through areas of the hypothalamus rather than on anatomical centres in the brain. Ghrelin performs double duty as neurotransmitter in the nervous system and as a hormone in the endocrine system. Elevated ghrelin levels are associated with increased food intake. Glucose and Digestive Regulation Glucose is a simple sugar that is an important source of energy. Glucostatic theory proposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain by glucostatsneurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid. Some researchers continue to believe that glucostatic mechanisms contribute to the modulation of eating. The vagus nerve carries information about the stretching of the stomach walls that indicates when the stomach is full. Hormonal Regulation Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas. It must be present for cells to extract glucose from the blood. Insulin secretions play a role in the fluctuation of hunger. Leptin is produced by fat cells throughout the body and released into the bloodstream. Leptin circulates through the bloodstream and ultimately provides the hypothalamus with information about the bodys fat stores. Leptin apparently activates receptors in the brain that inhibit the release of neuropeptide Y, which leads to activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which inhibits eating. Environmental Factors in Hunger Three key environmental factors are (1) the availability of food, (2) learned preferences and habits, and (3) stress. Food Availability and Related Cues Some theorists emphasize the incentive value of food and argue that humans and other animals are often motivated to eat not by the need to compensate for energy but by the anticipated pleasure of eating. According to this perspective, the availability and palatability of food are the key factors in regulating hunger. The presence of tasty food often leads people to eat even though they are already quite full from recently consumed food. Research shows that hunger is influenced by food availability and palatability. As you eat a specific food, its incentive value declines. This phenomenon is called sensory-specific satiety. If only a few foods are available, the appeal of all of them can decline quickly. But if many food are available, people
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