Chapter 13- Stress, Coping, and Health
The biopsychosocial model holds that physical illness is caused by a complex
interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
The Nature of Stress
Stress as any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well-
being and that thereby tax one’s coping abilities.
Major Types of Stress
Acute stressors are threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a
clear end point.
Chronic stressors are threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no
readily apparent time limit.
Four major types of stress: frustration, conflict, change, and pressure.
Frustration occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted.
Failures and losses are two common kinds of frustration that are often highly stressful.
Conflict occurs when two or more incompatible motivations of behavioural impulses
compete for expression.
In an approach-approach conflict, a choice must be made between two attractive
In an avoidance-avoidance conflict, a choice must be made between two unattractive
In an approach-avoidance conflict, a choice must be made about whether to pursue a
single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects.
Approach-avoidance conflicts often produce vacillation. That is, you go back and forth,
beset by indecision.
Life changes are any noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) measures life change as a form of stress. T