PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Mary Whiton Calkins, Johns Hopkins University, Leta Stetter Hollingworth

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9 Jan 2013
Chapter 1-The Evolution of Psychology
-psychology comes from the two Greek words, psyche meaning the soul and logos referring to the study
of subject; literal meaning “the study of the mind”
-Psychology use to be a part of philosophy and physiology (parents 19th century)
-German professor Wilhelm Wundt (known as the founder of psychology) ; campaigned to make PSYCH
an independent discipline, defined psychology as the scientific study of consciousness
-1879 “date of PSYCH birth” he succeeded and established the first formal laboratory for research in
- G. Stanley Hall(1846-1924) (studied with Wundt) was known as the “firsts” to American PSYCH; he
established the first research lab in America at John Hopkins University and launched the first psych
- Hall also established the APA (American Psychological Association) and elected the first president ; APA
is today the world’s largest organization in advancement of psych
-the first two major school of thoughts in psych structuralism and functionalism
- Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its
vggbasic elements and investigate how these elements related; emerged by Edward Titchener
- Main purpose was to examine the fundamental components of conscious experience, sensation and
perception using the method of introspection: careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own
conscious experience
- Functionalism: based on the belief that psych should investigate the function or purpose of
consciousness, rather than its structure; emerged by William James
-James landmark book “principles of psych” standard readings for generations of psychologists and one
of the most influential texts in the history of psych
- James was impressed with the work of Charles Darwin “natural selection: a heritable characteristics
that provide a survival of reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be
passed on to a subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time
- James argued that the structuralists’ approached missed the real nature of conscious of a continuous
flow of thoughts, he called “the stream of consciousness”
- functionalists interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the demands of the real world around
- Women in PSYCH Margaret F Washburn first woman in the US to receive PHD in psych, author of “The
animal mind”
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- Leta Hollingworth theories on why women were inferior then men
- Mary Whiton Calkins became the first woman to president of APA
-functionalism won the battle, and fostered two descendants that dominated modern psych:
behaviourism and applied psychology
- early 1900s major school of thought developed by John B. Watson behaviourism- a theoretical
orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour
-Behaviour- to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism
- Psychology’s oldest debate whether behaviour is determined mainly by genetic inheritance (“nature”)
or by environment and experience (nurture)
- Behaviourist view psych to relate overt behaviours (responses) to observable events in the
environment (“stimuli”) using stimulus-response relationships (S-R)
- Stimulus is any detectable input from an environment
Review of Key Points (page 9)
-Sigmund Freud an Austrian physician, who treated those troubled by psychological problems such as
irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties using what he called psychoanalysis
- Freud also gathered material for his theory looking inward and examining his own anxieties, conflicts
and desires; which lead his to the existence of the unconscious
- Unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of the conscious
awareness but nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour
- Freud noticed things like the slip of tongue, which revealed often true feelings, and dreams that
expressed important things people were unaware of
- Freud went on to developing his theory, psychoanalytic theory which attempts to explain personality,
motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour
- Freud gained influence slowly and attracted other psychologists such as Carl Jung and Alfred Adler, by
1920 psychoanalytic theory was worldwide and applied his work to personality, motivation and
abnormal behaviour
- B.F. Skinner psychologist from Harvard became a central figure of behaviourism and the history of
- Skinner was influenced by Watson’s and Pavlov’s work and later on developed his own philosophy of
radical behaviourism
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