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Appendix B Notes

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Readings- Appendix B- Statistical Methods Statistics: the use of mathematics to organize, summarize, & interpret numerical data Graphing Data Frequency distribution: an orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of each score or group of scores (tally) Histogram: a bar graph that presents data from a frequency distribution Frequency polygon: a line figure used to present data from a frequency distribution Descriptive statistics: used to organize & summarize data Measuring Central Tendency Negatively skewed distribution: most scores pile up at the high end of the scale Positively skewed distribution: scores pile up at the low end of the scale A few extreme scores at one end pull the mean, & slightly the median, away from the mode Mean may be misleading & the median usually provides the most accurate central tendency Measuring Variability Standard deviation: an index of the amount of variability in a set of data Steps of calculating the standard of deviation 1. Add scores & divide by the number of scores to calculate the mean. 2. Calculate each scores deviation (subtract the mean from each score). 3. Square these deviations from the mean & total the results. 4. Insert the numbers into the formula & complete the results. Formula= square root of total deviation squared, divided by the number of scores. The Normal Distribution Is the symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many human characteristics are dispersed in the population When a trait is normally distributed, most scores fall near the centre (the mean) Normal distribution is a precise way to measure how people compare to one another ie. IQ test www.notes
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