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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Readings- Chapter 5 The Nature of Consciousness Consciousness: the awareness of internal & external stimuli We have some degree of awareness when were asleep It is continuously changing stream of consciousness Variations in Awareness & Control Some of our consciousness is intentional Mind wandering: peoples experience of task-unrelated thoughts, thoughts that arent related to what theyre intentionally trying to do at a given moment People spend 15%-50% of their time mind wandering Controlled processes: judgments or thoughts that we exert some control over, that we intend to occur Automatic processes: happen without our intentional control or effort Consciousness & Brain Activity Consciousness doesnt arise from any distinct structure in the brain, but from activity in distributed networks of neural pathways Electroencephalograph (EEG): a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp The EEG summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain in terms of line tracings called brain waves Human brain waves are divided into 4 principal bands, based on the frequency of the waves Different patterns are associated with different states of consciousness (SEE NOTEBOOK) Biological Rhythms & Sleep Past 3 decades have demonstrated the critical impact that has on many of the important processes & tasks that we engage in every day Biological rhythm: periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning The Role of Circadian Rhythms Circadian rhythms: the 24-hour biological cycles found in humans & other species www.notesolution.com They are influential I the regulation of sleep Ie, body temperature varies rhythmically in a daily cycle People fall asleep as their body temperature begins to drop & awaken as it begins to ascend Everyone has an ideal time when they are most likely to fall asleep Sleep quality may be more strongly correlated with health & well-being than with the sheer quantity of sleep Daily exposure to light readjusts peoples biological clocks Ignoring Circadian Rhythms What happens when you sleep at an unusual time? The quality of your sleep suffers If you get less sleep than you need, you accumulate sleep dceabtbe paid back by getting extra sleep Readjustment process takes about a day for each time zone crossed Speed of readjustment depends on the direction travelled Readjustment is easier when flying west & lengthen your day than when you fly east & shorten your day studies have found that teams flying west perform significantly better than teams flying east Melatonin & Circadian Rhythms melatonin (hormone) can reduce the effects of jet lag but research is inconsistent, due to the timing of the dose & light settings The Sleep & Waking Cycle sleep labs are created for researchers to study them while they sleep electromyography (EMG) records muscular activity & tension electrooculograph (EOG) records eye movements other instruments are used to monitor heart rate, breathing, pulse rate & body temperature Cycling Through the Stages of Sleep 5 main stages while sleeping www.notesolution.com Stages 1-4 Length of time it takes for people to fall asleep varies depending on how long its been since they last slept, where the person is in their circadian cycle, the amount of noise/light in the sleep environment, the persons age, desire to fall asleep, boredom level, recent caffeine or drug intake, stress level etc Stage 1 is a brief transitional stage of light sleep that usually lasts only a few (1-7 mins) Breathing & heart rate slow as muscle tension & body temperature decline Hypnic jerks: brief muscle contractions that occur as people fall asleep Stages 2, 3, & 4, respiration rate, heart rate, muscle tension & body temperature continue to decline Stage 2 (lasts 10-25 mins), brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves, called sleep spindles appear against a background of mixed EEG activity Brain waves become higher & slower in frequency as the body goes into slow-wave sleep: consists of sleep stages 3 & 4, during which high-amplitude, low-frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings People reach this stage after about 30 mins, & stay there for 30 mins REM Sleep People fall back into light sleep (stage 1) & go directly to st ageE 5M sleep Researchers use an electrooculograph to monitor side-to-side movements that occur beneath the sleeping persons closed eyelids REM sleep was discovered by accident in the 1950s This is a very deep stage of sleep, its hard to wake someone up from it There is irregular breathing & pulse rate Muscles are completely relaxed; little to no movement Most dream reports come from the REM stage Repeating the Cycle During the course of the night, people tend to repeat the cycle about 4 times The first REM period is short, only lasting a few mins REM periods get longer, peaking at around 40-60 mins www.notesolution.com
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