PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Connectionism, Semantic Network, Episodic Memory

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Readings- Chapter 7
Human Memory
-Semantic memory are general memories; episodic is more personal memories
-Animals have no episodic memory; they donโ€™t plan for the future
-Encoding: involving forming a memory code
-Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time
-Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores
Encoding: The Role of Attention
๎€Need to pay attention to information if you intend to remember it
๎€Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
๎€Attentions is selectively filtered
๎€Attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of the input
๎€How early or late we filter our attention is flexible; depends on cognitive load
๎€When there are high-loaded, complicated tasks that consume much of our attention capacity,
our selection tends to occur early; if we are involved in low-loaded, simple tasks, there is more
room for distractions, leading to a later selection
๎€When people are forced to divide their attention, memory performance is weakened
๎€People canโ€™t truly multitask; the human brain can only handle one attention-consuming task
at once
Levels of Processing
๎€Differences in how people attend information are the main factors influencing how much
they remember
๎€Dealing with verbal information, people engage in 3 deeper levels of processing: structural,
phonemic, & semantic encoding
๎€Structural: shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus
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๎€Phonemic: emphasizes what a word sounds like (naming or saying the word)
๎€Semantic: emphasizes the meaning of the verbal input; thinking of words/objects the word
represents
๎€Levels-of-processing theory: states that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting
memory codes
๎€Highest results are semantic encoding, then phonemic & structural
๎€Limitation ๎€ how do we know whether one level is deeper than another?
Enriching Encoding: Elaboration
๎€Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
๎€Using examples to create an association between a stimulus to another
Enriching Encoding: Visual Imagery
๎€ if you were asked to remember the world apple, itโ€™s easy to picture it in your mind
because its concrete
๎€If you were asked to remember the word lie, itโ€™s hard to create an image in your mind
because its abstract
๎€Imagery helps with memory because it creates two codes, which is better than one
๎€Dual-coding theory: memory is enhanced by forming semantic & visual codes; either
can lead to recall
Enriching Encoding: Self-Referent Encoding
๎€Making material personally meaningful; relating something to your own life
๎€If it has personal value to you, you are more likely to remember it better
Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
๎€Aristotle & Plato compared memory to a block of wax
๎€Now it can be compared to storing information into computers
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Sensory Memory
๎€Sensory memory: preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time,
usually only a fraction of a second (when you move a lighter around & can see the
outline of the fire traces)
๎€People perceive an afterimage rather than the actual stimulus
Short-Term Memory
๎€Is a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about
20 seconds
๎€Rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information so
it stays longer
๎€Maintenance rehearsal: maintaining the information in consciousness like a machine
ie, looking up a number, and repeating it a few times so you can dial it
๎€Elaborative rehearsal: increasing the probability you will retain the information in the
future by relating it to info you already know
Capacity of Storage
๎€People can only store + or โ€“ 7 items in STM (5-9)
๎€You can enlarge the capacity by chunking information into groups/units
STM as โ€œWorking Memoryโ€
๎€Phonological loop: is in use when you use recitation to temporarily remember a
phone number; it evolved to facilitate the acquisition of language
๎€Visuospatial sketchpad: permits people to temporarily hold & manipulate visual
images; this is when you try to mentally rearrange furniture in your room
๎€Central executive system: controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus
of attention ie, dividing attention between a conversation with your mom & a t.v.
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Document Summary

Semantic memory are general memories; episodic is more personal memories. Animals have no episodic memory; they don"t plan for the future. Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time. Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores. need to pay attention to information if you intend to remember it. Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. Attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of the input. how early or late we filter our attention is flexible; depends on cognitive load. when there are high-loaded, complicated tasks that consume much of our attention capacity, our selection tends to occur early; if we are involved in low-loaded, simple tasks, there is more room for distractions, leading to a later selection. when people are forced to divide their attention, memory performance is weakened. People can"t t ruly multitask; the human brain can only handle one attention-consuming task at once.

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