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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Notes

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Readings- Chapter 7 Human Memory - Semantic memory are general memories; episodic is more personal memories - Animals have no episodic memory; they don’t plan for the future - Encoding: involving forming a memory code - Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time - Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores Encoding: The Role of Attention Need to pay attention to information if you intend to remember it Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events Attentions is selectively filtered Attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of the input How early or late we filter our attention is flexible; depends on cognitive load When there are high-loaded, complicated tasks that consume much of our attention capacity, our selection tends to occur early; if we are involved in low-loaded, simple tasks, there is more room for distractions, leading to a later selection When people are forced to divide their attention, memory performance is weakened People can’t truly multitask; the human brain can only handle one attention-consuming task at once Levels of Processing Differences in how people attend information are the main factors influencing how much they remember Dealing with verbal information, people engage in 3 deeper levels of processing: structural, phonemic, & semantic encoding Structural: shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus www.notesolution.com Phonemic: emphasizes what a word sounds like (naming or saying the word) Semantic: emphasizes the meaning of the verbal input; thinking of words/objects the word represents Levels-of-processing theory: states that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes Highest results are semantic encoding, then phonemic & structural Limitation how do we know whether one level is deeper than another? Enriching Encoding: Elaboration Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding Using examples to create an association between a stimulus to another Enriching Encoding: Visual Imagery if you were asked to remember the world apple, it’s easy to picture it in your mind because its concrete If you were asked to remember the word lie, it’s hard to create an image in your mind because its abstract Imagery helps with memory because it creates two codes, which is better than one Dual-coding theory: memory is enhanced by forming semantic & visual codes; either can lead to recall Enriching Encoding: Self-Referent Encoding Making material personally meaningful; relating something to your own life If it has personal value to you, you are more likely to remember it better Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory Aristotle & Plato compared memory to a block of wax Now it can be compared to storing information into computers www.notesolution.com Sensory Memory Sensory memory: preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second (when you move a lighter around & can see the outline of the fire traces) People perceive an afterimage rather than the actual stimulus Short-Term Memory Is a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds Rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information so it stays longer Maintenance rehearsal: maintaining the information in consciousness like a machine ie, looking up a number, and repeating it a few times so you can dial it Elaborative rehearsal: increasing the probability you will retain the information in the future by relating it to info you already know Capacity of Storage People can only store + or – 7 items in STM (5-9) You can enlarge the capacity by chunking information into groups/units STM as “Working Memory” Phonological loop: is in use when you use recitation to temporarily remember a phone number; it evolved to facilitate the acquisition of language Visuospatial sketchpad: permits people to temporarily hold & manipulate visual images; this is when you try to mentally rearrange furniture in your room Central executive system: controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention ie, dividing attention between a conversation with your mom & a t.v. www.notesolution.com show you are trying to watch Episodic buffer: a temporary, limited-capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate information & that serves as an interface between working memory & long-term memory Long-Term Memory An unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time Some believe this information is stored permanently; forgetting only occurs because people sometimes can’t retrieve the information from LTM Flashbulb memories: unusually vivid & detailed recollections of momentous events ie, remembering exactly where you were/what you were doing during 9/11 There’s no evidence that memories are permanent; forgetting is a matter of retrieval failure Clustering & Conceptual Hierarchies People organize information into categories for storage memory Clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups Conceptual hierarchy: a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items; one might construct this for the different types of minerals & their characteristics Schemas Schema: an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object/event abstracted from previous experience with the object/event People are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that aren’t People sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schema-based expectations; if information really clashes with a schema, it will stand out & become memorable Semantic Networks Consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link www.notesolution.com related concepts Proven useful to explain why thinking about one word can make a closely related word easier to remember; this is called spreading activation Connectionist Networks & Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models PDP: assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks PDP models state that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks Using Cues to Aid Retrieval Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feel
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