PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Connectionism, Semantic Network, Episodic Memory

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Published on 23 Feb 2011
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Readings- Chapter 7
Human Memory
-Semantic memory are general memories; episodic is more personal memories
-Animals have no episodic memory; they dont plan for the future
-Encoding: involving forming a memory code
-Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time
-Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores
Encoding: The Role of Attention
Need to pay attention to information if you intend to remember it
Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
Attentions is selectively filtered
Attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of the input
How early or late we filter our attention is flexible; depends on cognitive load
When there are high-loaded, complicated tasks that consume much of our attention capacity,
our selection tends to occur early; if we are involved in low-loaded, simple tasks, there is more
room for distractions, leading to a later selection
When people are forced to divide their attention, memory performance is weakened
People cant truly multitask; the human brain can only handle one attention-consuming task
at once
Levels of Processing
Differences in how people attend information are the main factors influencing how much
they remember
Dealing with verbal information, people engage in 3 deeper levels of processing: structural,
phonemic, & semantic encoding
Structural: shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus
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Phonemic: emphasizes what a word sounds like (naming or saying the word)
Semantic: emphasizes the meaning of the verbal input; thinking of words/objects the word
represents
Levels-of-processing theory: states that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting
memory codes
Highest results are semantic encoding, then phonemic & structural
Limitation how do we know whether one level is deeper than another?
Enriching Encoding: Elaboration
Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
Using examples to create an association between a stimulus to another
Enriching Encoding: Visual Imagery
if you were asked to remember the world apple, its easy to picture it in your mind
because its concrete
If you were asked to remember the word lie, its hard to create an image in your mind
because its abstract
Imagery helps with memory because it creates two codes, which is better than one
Dual-coding theory: memory is enhanced by forming semantic & visual codes; either
can lead to recall
Enriching Encoding: Self-Referent Encoding
Making material personally meaningful; relating something to your own life
If it has personal value to you, you are more likely to remember it better
Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
Aristotle & Plato compared memory to a block of wax
Now it can be compared to storing information into computers
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Sensory Memory
Sensory memory: preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time,
usually only a fraction of a second (when you move a lighter around & can see the
outline of the fire traces)
People perceive an afterimage rather than the actual stimulus
Short-Term Memory
Is a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about
20 seconds
Rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information so
it stays longer
Maintenance rehearsal: maintaining the information in consciousness like a machine
ie, looking up a number, and repeating it a few times so you can dial it
Elaborative rehearsal: increasing the probability you will retain the information in the
future by relating it to info you already know
Capacity of Storage
People can only store + or 7 items in STM (5-9)
You can enlarge the capacity by chunking information into groups/units
STM as Working Memory
Phonological loop: is in use when you use recitation to temporarily remember a
phone number; it evolved to facilitate the acquisition of language
Visuospatial sketchpad: permits people to temporarily hold & manipulate visual
images; this is when you try to mentally rearrange furniture in your room
Central executive system: controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus
of attention ie, dividing attention between a conversation with your mom & a t.v.
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Document Summary

Semantic memory are general memories; episodic is more personal memories. Animals have no episodic memory; they don"t plan for the future. Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time. Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores.  need to pay attention to information if you intend to remember it. Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. Attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of the input.  how early or late we filter our attention is flexible; depends on cognitive load.  when there are high-loaded, complicated tasks that consume much of our attention capacity, our selection tends to occur early; if we are involved in low-loaded, simple tasks, there is more room for distractions, leading to a later selection.  when people are forced to divide their attention, memory performance is weakened. People can"t t ruly multitask; the human brain can only handle one attention-consuming task at once.