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Chapter 12

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PSYC 1010
Jill Bee Rich

PSYC 1010 B CHAPTER 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment Personality: an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits Consistency: the stability in a person’s behaviour over time and across situations Distinctiveness: the behavioural differences among people’s reaction to same situation Personality trait: durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations e.g honest, dependable, moody, impulsive, anxious, et.al Most approaches to personality assume that some traits are more basic than others e.g restlessness, impulsiveness, and impatient are derived from a basic personality of excitable Raymond Cattell used statistical procedure of factor analysis, which reduced large list of personality traits into 16 basic personality traits The 5-factor Model of Personality Traits: A CONE a) Agreeableness Sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward b) Extraversion Outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious c) Neuroticism: Anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and vulnerable d) Openness to experience: Curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginative, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitude e) Conscientiousness: Diligent, disciplines, well-organized, punctual, and dependable I. Psychodynamic Perspectives: All theories that descended from Freud’s works that focused on the unconscious forces Freud’s psychoanalytic theory: Attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of: Early childhood experiences; Unconscious motives & conflicts; Methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges Freud’s personality structure: 3 components: a) id b) ego c) superego Id: the primitive, instinctive component of personality Operates based on pleasure principle(demands immediate gratification of its urges) Engages in primary-process thinking(primitive, illogical, irrational, & fantasy-oriented) Resides in unconscious level of awareness Ego: the decision-making component Operates based on reality principle(consider social realities—society’s norms, etiquette, rules & customs in deciding how to behave) Reality principle seeks to delay gratification of id’s urges until appropriate situation is achieved Resides in the conscious level of awareness Superego: moral component Incorporates social standards about what represents right & wrong Emerges around 3-5yrs. Of age Shuns id’s pleasure principle Resides in unconscious, preconscious, and conscious levels of awareness Levels of Awareness: Conscious: whatever one is aware of at a particular time Preconscious: contains materials just beneath the surface of awareness that can be easily retrieved Unconscious: thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but exert influence on behaviour e.g. repressed childhood trauma  repressed hostility toward parent or repressed sexual desires Defense Mechanisms: largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt. most of our conflicts are sexual and aggressive impulses that society is against e.g. a man may want to get in bed with a beautiful girl he sees walking on the street, but society won’t allow that. => creates tension and internal conflict for the man since his id wants to have sex with the girl but his superego doesn’t allow that nor does the ego(in that situation) Types of Defense Mechanisms: DRRRRIP a) Displacement: diverting emotional feelings(usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target e.g. your boss scolded you at work, you shout at your spouse when you get home b) Repression: keeping distressing thought & feelings buried in the unconscious motivated forgetting e.g. your boss scolded you at work, forget about being scolded c) Rationalization: false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behaviour e.g. by shouting at your spouse, you rationalize by saying everyone does it d) Reaction formation: behaving in a way that’s opposite of one’s own feelings e.g. admire your boss who shouts at you e) Regression: reversion to immature patterns of behaviour e.g. since your boss scolded you, you stop going to work and just party instead f) Identification: bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary alliance with some person or group e.g. ignore your boss’s scolding since your celebrity idol also ignores his manager’s scolding g) Projection:  attributing own thoughts and feeling to another e.g. you don’t like your boss but you think that your boss wants you to be scared of him Psychosexual Stages: developmental period with characteristic sexual focus that leave mark on adult personality 5 stages: OAPLG(chronological) or GALOP(random) a) Oral : 0-1yr. old erotic focus on mouth (biting, sucking) weaning is important b) Anal: 2-3 yrs. Old erotic focus on anus (retain or expel feces) toilet training is important c) Phallic: 4-5 yrs. Old erotic focus on genitals(masturbating) identification with adult role model and coping with oedipal/electra complex are important d) Latency: 6-12 yrs. Old no erotic focus expanding social contacts is important e) Genital: puberty
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