PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Neuroticism, Personal Unconscious, Personality Development

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3 Feb 2013

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Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment
Personality: an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits
: the stability in a person’s behaviour over time and across situations
: the behavioural differences among people’s reaction to same
Personality trait: durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
e.g honest, dependable, moody, impulsive, anxious,
Most approaches to personality assume that some traits are more basic than others
e.g restlessness, impulsiveness, and impatient are derived from a basic personality of excitable
Raymond Cattell used statistical procedure of factor analysis, which reduced large list of personality traits into 16
basic personality traits
The 5-factor Model of Personality Traits: A CONE
a) Agreeableness
Sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward
b) Extraversion
Outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious
c) Neuroticism:
Anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and vulnerable
d) Openness to experience:
Curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginative, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitude
e) Conscientiousness:
Diligent, disciplines, well-organized, punctual, and dependable
I. Psychodynamic Perspectives:
All theories that descended from Freud’s works that focused on the unconscious forces
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory:
Attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of:
Early childhood experiences;
Unconscious motives & conflicts;
Methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges
Freud’s personality structure:
3 components:
a) id
b) ego
c) superego
Id: the primitive, instinctive component of personality
Operates based on pleasure principle(demands immediate gratification of its urges)
Engages in primary-process thinking(primitive, illogical, irrational, & fantasy-oriented)
Resides in unconscious level of awareness
Ego: the decision-making component
Operates based on reality principle(consider social realities—society’s norms, etiquette, rules &
customs in deciding how to behave)
Reality principle seeks to delay gratification of id’s urges until appropriate situation is achieved
Resides in the conscious level of awareness
Superego: moral component
Incorporates social standards about what represents right & wrong
Emerges around 3-5yrs. Of age
Shuns id’s pleasure principle
Resides in unconscious, preconscious, and conscious levels of awareness
Levels of Awareness:
Conscious: whatever one is aware of at a particular time
Preconscious: contains materials just beneath the surface of awareness that can be easily retrieved
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Unconscious: thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but exert
influence on behaviour
e.g. repressed childhood trauma repressed hostility toward parent or repressed sexual desires
Defense Mechanisms:
largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.
most of our conflicts are sexual and aggressive impulses that society is against
e.g. a man may want to get in bed with a beautiful girl he sees walking on the street, but society won’t
allow that. => creates tension and internal conflict for the man since his id wants to have sex with the girl
but his superego doesn’t allow that nor does the ego(in that situation)
Types of Defense Mechanisms: DRRRRIP
a) Displacement:
diverting emotional feelings(usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target
e.g. your boss scolded you at work, you shout at your spouse when you get home
b) Repression:
keeping distressing thought & feelings buried in the unconscious
motivated forgetting
e.g. your boss scolded you at work, forget about being scolded
c) Rationalization:
false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behaviour
e.g. by shouting at your spouse, you rationalize by saying everyone does it
d) Reaction formation:
behaving in a way that’s opposite of one’s own feelings
e.g. admire your boss who shouts at you
e) Regression:
reversion to immature patterns of behaviour
e.g. since your boss scolded you, you stop going to work and just party instead
f) Identification:
bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary alliance with some person or group
e.g. ignore your boss’s scolding since your celebrity idol also ignores his manager’s scolding
g) Projection:
attributing own thoughts and feeling to another
e.g. you don’t like your boss but you think that your boss wants you to be scared of him
Psychosexual Stages:
developmental period with characteristic sexual focus that leave mark on adult personality
5 stages: OAPLG(chronological) or GALOP(random)
a) Oral : 0-1yr. old
erotic focus on mouth (biting, sucking)
weaning is important
b) Anal: 2-3 yrs. Old
erotic focus on anus (retain or expel feces)
toilet training is important
c) Phallic: 4-5 yrs. Old
erotic focus on genitals(masturbating)
identification with adult role model and coping with oedipal/electra complex are important
d) Latency: 6-12 yrs. Old
no erotic focus
expanding social contacts is important
e) Genital: puberty
erotic focus on genitals
have intimate relationship and contribute to society are important
Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysis:
a) Analytic Pscyhology
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