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Chapter 7

Chapter 7textbook(human memory)Page 300-335.pdf

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PSYC 1010
Jill Bee Rich

Textbook Notes-Chapter 7(human memory) Page 300-324 December-02-12 Attention 4:15 PM  Focusing awareness on narrowed stimuli, Selective attention is critical 1. How does information get into our memory?  Debate: Whether stimuli are screened out (filtered) early (during sensory input) or late Encoding, forming a memory code (after brain begins to process input meaning) 2. How is info maintained in our memory?  With Tamara's name in cocktail party example, Attention involves late selection Storage  Divided attention can have a negative impact, multitasking is actually difficult and 3. How is the info pulled back out of memory? insufficient Retrieval, recovering info from memory stores  Much of our info encoded in memory is effortful processing, but some info may be Level of Type of encoding Question examples acquired automatically  Levels-of-processingtheory processing ○ States that deeper levels of processing results in longer-lasting memory codes Shallow processing Structural encodingIs the word in Emphasizes physical capitals? ○ Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart argued that different rates of forgetting occur structure of stimulus because some methods of encoding created more durable memory code How can we enrich encoding? Intermediate Phonemic encoding: Does word rhyme processing emphasizes what a with weight?  Elaboration words sounds like ○ Linking the stimulus to other info at time of encoding ○ e.g., read about phobias and connect it to spider phobia Deep processing Semantic encoding: Would the word fit emphasizes meaning in: "He met a ___ on  Visual Imagery of verbal input the street?" ○ Creating visual images to represent words to remember( like what I do in psych) Short Term Memory-'Working Memory' ○ Demonstration took place in a 1968 study by Paivio, Smythe, and Yuille  Working memory is a limited capacity storage system ○ According to Paivio, imagery facilitates memory because it provides two that temporarily maintains and stores info by providing kinds of encodings an interference between perception, memory, and action  Self-Referent Encoding ○ Involves deciding how info is relevant to personal experience  Baddeley's model of working memory, four ○ Craik and Tulving conducted experiment and asked subjects whether components: □ Phonological loop-works when you use recitation adjectives flashed on the screen applied to them personally to temporarily remember a phone number, ○ Those who are depressed have more negative content in their self-prototype How is info stored in Memory? Baddeley believes it evolved to facilitate language acquisition  Sensory Memory □ Visuospatial sketchpad-allows people to ○ It preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only for seconds temporarily hold and manipulate visual images ○ Allows for sensations of visual patterns, sounds or tough to linger after the sensory □ Central executive system- controls deployment of stimulation is over attention and dividing your attention as needed, ○ People perceive and afterimage, rather than the actual stimulus coordinates action of other modules ○ George Sperling did a classic experiment in 1960: analysis-Memory trace in visual □ Episodic buffer- a temporary, limited-capacity sensory decays in 1/4 of a second. store that allows various components of working  Short Term Memory memory to integrate info which serves as an ○ A limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to 20 interface between working memory and long- term memory seconds ○ You can maintain info by rehearsal ( process of repetitively thinking about info)  Working memory Capacity (WMC)- one's ability to hold  Durability of Storage: without rehearsal, info lasts for only 20 sec and manipulate information in conscious attention  Capacity of storage: magical plus or minus 7, Cowan says it might even be plus/minus 4 items  Time related decay of memory traces and interference seem to be the cause for the loss of information from short term memory  Use chunking (e.g. my cell number: twenty six, twenty seven, twenty eight…) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Long-Term Memory How is knowledgeRepresentedand Organizedin Memory? • (LMT) is an unlimited capacity store that can hold info Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies over long periods of time ○ 1953, Bousfield's study asked subjects to memorize a list of 60 words, participants • All information stored in long-term memory is more tended to remember them in bunches of the same category permanent, forgetting occurs because sometimes ○ Clustering- tendency to remember similar or related items in a group people cannot retrieve the needed info from LMT • Landmark study research was conducted by neurologist ○ Conceptual hierarchy- a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items, can improve recall dramatically Wilder Penfield in 1960s Schemas ○ He reported that long lost memories can be triggered through electrical stimulation(ESB) ○ An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or even abstracted from previous experience with the object or event (similar to assumption or generalization) during brain surgeries ○ People are more likely to rememberthings that are consistent with their schemas then ○ The stimulation of the temporal lobe elicited things that are not BUT, people sometimes exhibit better recall things that violate their
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