Textbook Notes (363,264)
Canada (158,281)
York University (12,359)
Psychology (3,543)
PSYC 1010 (1,075)

PSYCH1010 Human Development Across the Lifespan Note.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Human Development Across the Lifespan DEVELOPMENT: the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death Progress before Birth: Prenatal Development ZYGOTE: a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg PRENATAL PERIOD: extends from conception to birth; usually encompassing 9 months of pregnancy The Course of Prenatal Development This is divided into 3 phases: 1. Germinal Stage - The first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first 2 weeks after conception - Within 36 hours, rapid cell division begins th - On the 7 day, the cell mass has traveled along the fallopian tube and implants itself on the uterine wall in the uterine cavity - Many zygotes are rejected at this point - Approx. 1 in 5 pregnancies end with the woman never being ware that conception has occurred - Placenta begins to form (structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream, and bodily wastes to pass out of the mother) 2. Embryonic Stage - This stage lasts from 2 weeks until the end of 2 months - Most of the organs and bodily systems begin to form, it is now called an embryo - This is a period of great vulnerability because all of the basic physiological structures are being formed - Most miscarriages occur at this stage - Birth defects are due to problems that occur during this stage 3. Fetal Stage - This stage lasts from 2 months through birth - The first 2 months is rapid bodily growth – muscles and bones begin to form - It is now a fetus and capable of physical movement as skeletal structures harden - Sex organs develop at 3 months - At 22 weeks and 26 weeks, the fetus reaches the age of viability (the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth) Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development  Maternal Nutrition - Severe malnutrition increases the risk of birth complications and neurological defects for the newborn - Prenatal malnutrition has been linked to vulnerability to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adolescence and early adulthood, low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and diabetes in muddle adulthood  Maternal Drug Use - Most drugs consumed by a pregnant woman can pass through the placenta - Babies of heroin users are born addicted to narcotics and have an increased risk of early death due to prematurity, birth defects, respiratory difficulties, and problems associated with their addiction - Exposure to cocaine is associated with increased risk of birth complications and cognitive deficits in childhood - Exposure to marijuana is associated with a variety of physical and cognitive effects – linked to disturbances in executive functioning associated with the prefrontal part of the brain at age 3, implicated with disturbances in attention/impulsivity and problem solving domains FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME: a collection of congenital (in born) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy - Problems include: o Microcephaly (small head) o Heart Defects o Irritability o Hyperactivity o Delayed mental and motor development - Most common known cause of mental retardation - Related to difficulties in school, depression, suicide, drug problems and criminal behaviour in adolescence and adulthood - Smoking appears to increase a mother’s risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and prematurity and newborns’ risk for sudden infant death syndrome o Contributes to slower than average cognitive development, attention deficits, hyperactivity and conduct problems Maternal Illness - Diseases such as rubella, syphilis, cholera, smallpox, mumps, and even severe cases of the flu can be hazardous to the fetus - Genital herpes can be transmitted during the birth process when newborns come in contact with their mothers’ genital lesions o It can cause; microcephaly, paralysis, deafness, blindness, and brain damage in infants and it fatal for newborns - AIDS can be transmitted through the placenta, during birth or breastfeeding o Approx. 20% to 30% pass the disease on to their babies The Wondrous Years of Childhood Exploring the World: Motor Development MOTOR DEVELOPMENT: the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities  Basic Principles CEPHALOCAUDAL TREND: the head-to-foot direction of motor development - Children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part PROXIMODISTAL TREND: the center-outward direction of motor development - Children gain control over their torso before their extremities MATURATION: development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint - Infants grow to roughly triple their birth weight during the 1 year, while height increases by about 45% - The process of motor development suggest that infants are active agents rather than passive organisms waiting for their brain and limbs to mature - The driving force behind motor development is infant’s ongoing exploration of their world and their need to master specific tasks  Understanding Developmental Norms DEVELOPMENTAL NORMS: indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviours and abilities - Example, “average” children say their first word at 12 months and start combining words into sentences at around 24 months - They can be used as benchmarks as long as parents don’t expect their children to progress exactly  Cultural Variations and Their Significance - Cultural variations in the emergence of basic motor skills demonstrate that environmental factors can accelerate or slow down early motor development Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament TEMPERAMENT: refers to characteristic mood, activity level and emotional reactivity - Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess conducted studies on the development of temperament: LONGITUDIAL DESIGN: investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time o Since it takes years to complete, participants often drop out of the study CROSS-SECTIONAL DESIGN: investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time o Can be completed more quickly, easily and cheaply - They found that 40% of the youngsters were easy children who tended to be happy, regular in sleeping and eating, adaptable and not readily upset. Another 15% were slow-to-warm-up children who tended to be less cheery, less regular in their sleeping and eating, and slower in adapting to change. 10% were difficult children that tended to be glum, erratic in sleeping and eating, resistant to change, and relatively irritable. The remaining 35% showed mixtures of these 3 temperaments - A child’s temperament at 3 months was a fair predictor of the child’s temperament at age 10 - Jerome Kagan found 15% to 20% of infants display an inhibited temperament characterized by shyness, timidity, and wariness of unfamiliar people. In contrast, 25% to 30% exhibit an uninhibited temperament, they are less restrained, approaching unfamiliar people, objects and events with little trepidation Early Emotional Development: Attachment ATTACHMENT: refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers - By 6 to 8 months of age, infants show a preference for their mother and protest when separated from her SEPERATION ANXIETY: emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment - This typically peaks at around 14 to 18 months and then begins to decline - Behaviourists argued that this attachment develops because mothers are associated with the event of being fed, therefore the mother becomes a conditioned reinforce - John Bowlby argued that infants are biologically programmed to emit behaviour that triggers an affectionate, protective response from adults. Also that adults are programmed by evolutionary forces to be captivated by this behaviour and respond with love, warmth and protection  Patterns of Attachment - Mothers who are sensitive and responsive to their children’s needs tend to evoke more secure attachments than mothers who are insensitive or inconsistent in their responding 1. Most infants develop a secure attachment (happy when mother is present but upset when she leaves and quickly calmed down by her return) 2. Some display anxious-ambivalent attachment (appear anxious when mother is near, protest excessively when she leaves and is not calmed by her return) 3. Avoidant attachment (seek little attention from mother and not distressed when she leaves) 4. Disorganized disoriented attachment (confused if they should approach or avoid
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.