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Chapter

PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes -Psychosexual Development, David Buss, Collective Unconscious


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis

Page:
of 7
Personality I: Theories pp. 522 to 547
Psychodynamic Perspectives
PSYCHDYNAMIC THEORIES: include all of the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which
focus on unconscious mental forces
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
- Developed an innovative procedure for treating mental disorders called psychoanalysis
- Psychoanalytical theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by
focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts, and on the
methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges
- People were uncomfortable with his theory because:
1. He said that individuals were not masters of their own minds because they were governed by
unconscious factors of which they are unaware
2. He said that people are not masters of their own destinies because adult personalities are shaped by
childhood experiences and other factors beyond one’s control
3. He emphasized the great importance of how people cope with their sexual urges
Structure of personality
THE ID: is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle
- This is the reservoir of psychic energy (houses the raw biological urges that energize human behaviour)
- Operates according to the pleasure principle which demands immediate gratification of its urges
- It engages in primary-process thinking which is primitive, illogical, irrational and fantasy orientated
THE EGO: is the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle
- This considers social realities society’s norms, etiquette, rules, and customs – in deciding how to behave
- Guided by the reality principle which seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets
and situations can be found
- The ego works to tame the desires of the id
- Engages in secondary process thinking which is rational, realistic, and oriented toward problem solving
- Strives to avoid negative consequences from society and its representatives by behaving properly
- Attempts to achieve long-range goals that sometimes require putting off gratification
SUPEREGO: the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right
and wrong
- Emerges out of the ego at around 3 to 5 years old
- In some people, it can become irrationally demanding in its striving for moral perfection
Levels of awareness
1. The conscious consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time
2. The preconscious contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved
3. The unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious
awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour
- He believed that the unconscious is much larger than the conscious or preconscious
- He proposed that the ego and superego operate at all 3 levels of awareness while the id is entirely
unconscious, expressing its urges at a conscious level through the ego
Conflict and the tyranny of sex and aggression
- Freud assumed that behaviour is the outcome of an ongoing series of internal conflicts between the id, ego,
and superego
- He believed that conflicts centering on sexual and aggressive impulses are likely to have far reaching
consequences because:
1. Sex and aggression are more complex and ambiguous social controls than other basic motives
o People get inconsistent messages about what’s appropriate
o These 2 drives are the source of much confusion
2. Sexual and aggressive drives are thwarted more often than other basic biological urges
Anxiety and defence mechanisms
- The anxiety can be attributed to your ego worrying about:
1. The id getting out of control and doing something terrible that leads to severe negative consequences
2. The superego getting out of control and making you feel guilty about a real or imagined transgression
DEFENCE MECHANISMS: are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such
as anxiety and guilt
Defence mechanisms
Definition
Example
Repression
Keeping distressing thoughts and
feelings buried in the unconscious
- The most basic and widely used
defence mechanism
- Also called “motivated
forgetting”
A traumatized solider has no
recollection of the details of a
close brush with death
Projection
Attributing one’s own thoughts,
feelings, or motives to another
A woman who dislikes her boss
thinks she likes her boss but feels
that the boss doesnt like her
Displacement
Diverting emotional feelings
(usually anger) from their original
source to a substitute target
After parental scolding, a young
girl takes her anger out on her
little brother
Reaction formation
Behaving in a way that is exactly
opposite of one’s true feelings
A parent who unconsciously
resents a child spoils the child
with outlandish gifts
Regression
A reversion to immature patterns
of behaviour
An adult has a temper tantrum
when he doesnt get his way
Rationalization
Creating false but plausible
excuses to justify unacceptable
behaviour
- Thinking, everyone does it
A student watches TV instead of
studying, saying that “additional
studying wouldn’t do any good”
Identification
Bolstering self-esteem by forming
an imaginary or real alliance with
some person or group
An insecure young man joins a
fraternity to boost his self-esteem
Development: psychosexual stages
- Freud believed that an individual’s personality has been laid down by the age of 5
- He emphasized how young children deal with their immature yet powerful sexual urges. According to
Freud, these sexual urges shift in focus as child progress from one stage to the next.
FIXATION: a failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected
- Can be caused by excessive gratification of needs at a particular stage or by excessive frustration of those
needs
- Leads to an overemphasis on the psychosexual needs prominent during the fixated stage
Freud’s stages of psychosexual development
Stage
Approximate
ages
Erotic focus
Key tasks and
experiences
Oral
0 to 1
Mouth (sucking,
biting)
Weaning (from breast or
bottle)
Anal
2 to 3
Anus (expelling or
retaining feces)
Toilet training
Phallic
4 to 5
Genitals
(masturbating)
Identifying with adult
role models; coping with
Oedipal crisis
Latency
6 to 12
None (sexually
repressed)
Expanding social
contacts
Genital
Puberty
onwards
Genitals (being
sexually intimate)
Establishing intimate
relationships;
contributing to society
through working
Jungs Analytical Psychology
- Like Freud, Jung emphasized the unconscious determinants of personality. But said that the unconscious
consists of 2 layers
1. PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS: houses material that is not within one’s conscious awareness because it has
been repressed or forgotten (the same as Freud’s version of the unconscious)
2. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS: a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral
past
- Jung said that each person shares the collective unconscious with the entire human race. It contains the
“whole spiritual heritage of mankind’s evolution, born anew in the brain structure of every individual”
ARCHETYPES: are emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
- They are not memories of actual, personal experiences
- Show up frequently in dreams and are often manifested in a culture’s use of symbols in art, literature, and
religion
- Jung says that symbols vary from different cultures often show striking similarities because they emerge
from archetypes that are shared by the whole human race
- Like Freud, he depended extensively on dream analysis in his treatment of patients
- He was the first to describe inner-directed and outer-directed personality types:
INTROVERTS: tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences
(they are generally contemplative and aloof)
EXTRAVERTS: tend to be interested in the external world of people and things (they tend to be outgoing, talkative
and friendly)
Adler’s Individual Psychology
STRIVING FOR SUPERIORITY: a universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life’s challenges
- Adler said that the foremost source of human motivation is a striving for superiority
- He said that young children feel weak and helpless in comparison to older children and adults therefore
those early inferiority feelings motivate them to acquire new skills and develop new talents
COMPENSATION: involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities
INFERIORITY COMPLEX: exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy
- Adler thought that either parental pampering or parental neglect could cause this (therefore agreeing with
Freud on the importance of early childhood experiences)