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PSYCH The Nature of Personality Note.docx

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Personality I: Theories pp. 522 to 547 Psychodynamic Perspectives PSYCHDYNAMIC THEORIES: include all of the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory - Developed an innovative procedure for treating mental disorders called psychoanalysis - Psychoanalytical theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts, and on the methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges - People were uncomfortable with his theory because: 1. He said that individuals were not masters of their own minds because they were governed by unconscious factors of which they are unaware 2. He said that people are not masters of their own destinies because adult personalities are shaped by childhood experiences and other factors beyond one’s control 3. He emphasized the great importance of how people cope with their sexual urges  Structure of personality THE ID: is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle - This is the reservoir of psychic energy (houses the raw biological urges that energize human behaviour) - Operates according to the pleasure principle – which demands immediate gratification of its urges - It engages in primary-process thinking – which is primitive, illogical, irrational and fantasy orientated THE EGO: is the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle - This considers social realities – society’s norms, etiquette, rules, and customs – in deciding how to behave - Guided by the reality principle – which seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found - The ego works to tame the desires of the id - Engages in secondary process thinking – which is rational, realistic, and oriented toward problem solving - Strives to avoid negative consequences from society and its representatives by behaving properly - Attempts to achieve long-range goals that sometimes require putting off gratification SUPEREGO: the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong - Emerges out of the ego at around 3 to 5 years old - In some people, it can become irrationally demanding in its striving for moral perfection  Levels of awareness 1. The conscious consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time 2. The preconscious contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved 3. The unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour - He believed that the unconscious is much larger than the conscious or preconscious - He proposed that the ego and superego operate at all 3 levels of awareness while the id is entirely unconscious, expressing its urges at a conscious level through the ego  Conflict and the tyranny of sex and aggression - Freud assumed that behaviour is the outcome of an ongoing series of internal conflicts between the id, ego, and superego - He believed that conflicts centering on sexual and aggressive impulses are likely to have far reaching consequences because: 1. Sex and aggression are more complex and ambiguous social controls than other basic motives o People get inconsistent messages about what’s appropriate o These 2 drives are the source of much confusion 2. Sexual and aggressive drives are thwarted more often than other basic biological urges  Anxiety and defence mechanisms - The anxiety can be attributed to your ego worrying about: 1. The id getting out of control and doing something terrible that leads to severe negative consequences 2. The superego getting out of control and making you feel guilty about a real or imagined transgression DEFENCE MECHANISMS: are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt Defence mechanisms Definition Example Repression Keeping distressing thoughts and A traumatized solider has no feelings buried in the unconscious recollection of the details of a - The most basic and widely used close brush with death defence mechanism - Also called “motivated forgetting” Projection Attributing one’s own thoughts, A woman who dislikes her boss feelings, or motives to another thinks she likes her boss but feels that the boss doesn’t like her Displacement Diverting emotional feelings After parental scolding, a young (usually anger) from their original girl takes her anger out on her source to a substitute target little brother Reaction formation Behaving in a way that is exactly A parent who unconsciously opposite of one’s true feelings resents a child spoils the child with outlandish gifts Regression A reversion to immature patterns An adult has a temper tantrum of behaviour when he doesn’t get his way Rationalization Creating false but plausible A student watches TV instead of excuses to justify unacceptable studying, saying that “additional behaviour studying wouldn’t do any good” - Thinking, “everyone does it” Identification Bolstering self-esteem by forming An insecure young man joins a an imaginary or real alliance with fraternity to boost his self-esteem some person or group  Development: psychosexual stages - Freud believed that an individual’s personality has been laid down by the age of 5 - He emphasized how young children deal with their immature yet powerful sexual urges. According to Freud, these sexual urges shift in focus as child progress from one stage to the next. FIXATION: a failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected - Can be caused by excessive gratification of needs at a particular stage or by excessive frustration of those needs - Leads to an overemphasis on the psychosexual needs prominent during the fixated stage Freud’s stages of psychosexual development Stage Approximate Erotic focus Key tasks and Additional information ages experiences Oral 0 to 1 Mouth (sucking, Weaning (from breast or Fixation at this stage could biting) bottle) form the basis for obsessive eating or smoking later in life Anal 2 to 3 Anus (expelling or Toilet training Excessive punishment might retaining feces) produce a latent feeling of hostility toward the “trainer”. Heavy reliance on punitive measures could lead to an association between genital concerns and anxiety that the punishment arouses therefore evolve into anxiety about sexual activities later in life Phallic 4 to 5 Genitals Identifying with adult OEDIPAL COMPLEX: children (masturbating) role models; coping with manifest erotically tinged Oedipal crisis desires for their opposite-sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward the same-sex parent Latency 6 to 12 None (sexually Expanding social The child’s sexuality is largely repressed) contacts suppressed Genital Puberty Genitals (being Establishing intimate Sexual energy is normally onwards sexually intimate) relationships; channelled towards peers of contributing to society the other sex, rather toward through working oneself Jung’s Analytical Psychology - Like Freud, Jung emphasized the unconscious determinants of personality. But said that the unconscious consists of 2 layers 1. PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS: houses material that is not within one’s conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten (the same as Freud’s version of the unconscious) 2. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS: a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past - Jung said that each person shares the collective unconscious with the entire human race. It contains the “whole spiritual heritage of mankind’s evolution, born anew in the brain structure of every individual” ARCHETYPES: are emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning - They are not memories of actual, personal experiences - Show up frequently in dreams and are often manifested in a culture’s use of symbols in art, literature, and religion - Jung says that symbols vary from different cultures often show striking similarities because they emerge from archetypes that are shared by the whole human race - Like Freud, he depended extensively on dream analysis in his treatment of patients - He was the first to describe inner-directed and outer-directed personality types: INTROVERTS: tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences (they are generally contemplative and aloof) EXTRAVERTS: tend to be interested in the external world of people and things (they tend to be outgoing, talkative and friendly) Adler’s Individual Psychology STRIVING FOR SUPERIORITY: a universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life’s challenges - Adler said that the foremost source of human motivation is a striving for superiority - He said that young children feel weak and helpless in comparison to older children and adults therefore those early inferiority feelings motivate them to acquire new skills and develop new talents COMPENSATION: involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities INFERIORITY COMPLEX: exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy - Adler thought that either parental pampering
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