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PSYCH1010 Stress.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Winter

Description
Stress, Coping, and Health The Nature of Stress STRESS: any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well-being and that thereby tax one’s coping abilities Stress as an Everyday Event - Studies conducted in the aftermath of natural disasters typically find elevated rates of psychological problems and physical illness in the communities affected by disasters - According to Anisman and Merall, an individual’s response to a stressor is a function of a number of factors, including the type of stressor and its controllability, biological factors such as age and gender, and the individual’s previous experience with stress Appraisal: Stress Lies in the Eye of the Beholder - Anxious, neurotic people report more stress then others Major Types of Stress ACUTE STRESSORS: are threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint CHRONIC STRESSORS: threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit Frustration FRUSTRATION: occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted - Experienced when you want something but can’t have it - Can elicit anger and aggression - Most frustrations are brief and insignificant - Failures and losses are 2 common kinds of frustration that are often highly stressful - Losses can be extremely frustrating because people are deprived of something they’re accustomed to having Conflict CONFLICT: occurs when 2 or more incompatible motivations or behavioural impulses compete for expression - Sigmund Freud said that internal conflicts generate considerable psychological distress - Laura King and Robert Emmons found that higher levels of conflict were associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, and physical symptoms - There are 3 types of conflicts: 1. Approach-Approach Conflict – a choice must be made between 2 attractive goals o This is the last stressful o Typically have a happy-ending, whichever way you decide to go 2. Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict – a choice must be made between 2 unattractive goals o The most unpleasant and highly stressful 3. Approach-Avoidance Conflict – a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive goals o Common and quite stressful o Often produce vacillation (you go back and forth/indecisive) Change LIFE CHANGES: any noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment - According to Holmes and Rahe, changes in personal relationships, changes at work, changes in finance, and so forth can be stressful even when the changes are welcomed - They developed the SRRS – Social Readjustment Rating Scale to measure life change as a form of stress - Studies have shown that people with higher scores n the SRRS scale tend to be more vulnerable to many kinds of physical illness and to many types of psychological problems as well Pressure PRESSURE: involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way - You are under pressure to preform when you’re expected to execute tasks and responsibilities quickly, efficiently, and successfully - Pressures to conform to other’s expectations are also common in our lives - Pressure has turned out to be more strongly related to measures of mental health than the SRRS and other established measures of stress - Studies of high school and post secondary students find that pressure is often self-imposed Responding to Stress Emotional Responses  Emotions Commonly Elicited - Common emotional responses to stress include: o Annoyance, anger and rage o Apprehension, anxiety and fear o Dejection, sadness and grief - Fredrickson found that the frequency of pleasant emotions
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