PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes -Insomnia, Prostate Cancer, Shortness Of Breath
Chapter 3- Biological Bases of Behavior
Biological Approach- to understand behaviour, we must examine the brain and nervous system. An
assumption is that for every thought there’s a corresponding physical event taking place in the brain
Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB)
Split Brain patients- inability to do uncertain things
Two hemispheres are not connected to one another
Adapt to a situation to a certain degree
Left Hemisphere- dominant hemisphere
control the right hand side of the body
Right Hemisphere-controls the left side of the body
Stan Coren- prof @ UBC
10- 15% of left-handed people in the pop
- If you are left-handed the cause is a pathological event in neonatal
- shorter life span (theory)
- die 7-8 years earlier than right handed people
- impaired immune system
- syndrome – a bunch of diverse set of symptoms
Right- handed vs left-handed
Speech in L hemisphere 92% 69%
Speech in R hemisphere 7% 18%
Speech in both hemisphere 1% 13%
CNS – brain and spinal cord
PNS- neural tissue outside the brain and spinal cord
Autonomic – internal systems, involuntary, visceral
Sympathetic – trouble shooter
Parasympathetic – housekeeping, maintain homeostasis( negative/positive feedback)
Neurons- the most basic unit of the NS
Glial cells- acts as a glue to keep the NS intact
Electrochemical reactions – extremely mild electric charges transfer impulses from one neuron to
Dendrites- carry the impulses to the brain
Axons- protected by the myelin sheath(acts as an insulation)
Synapse- gap between neurons
Resting Potential- when a neuron is at rest
Action Potential- when a resting neuron is stimulated by another neuron and a surge of electrical
energy moves down the axon.
all or nothing
Neural impulses- 200 mi/hr
Whether the post-synaptic neuron fires or not, depends upon:
A total no. of messages or impulses that it receives
The type of message it receives
Excitatory or inhibitory in nature
Excitatory – creates a positive voltage switch having the ability to excite the next neuron
Inhibitory- prevent a nearby neuron from firing
Chapter 6 Summary
Phobias are irrational fears of specific objects or situations and are often the result of another learning
process termed classical conditioning
Learning refers to a relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience. This
broad definition means that learning is one of the most fundamental concepts in all of psychology.
Conditioning involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment. In
investigating conditioning, psychologists study learning at a very fundamental level.
Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a
response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. The process was first described around 1900
by Ivan Pavlov, and it is sometimes called Pavlovian conditioning in tribute to him. The term
conditioning comes from Pavlov's determination to discover the "conditions" that produce this kind of
Pavlov would present meat powder to a dog and then collect the resulting saliva. As his research
progressed, he noticed that dogs accustomed to the procedure would start
Salivating before the meat powder was presented. What Pavlov had demonstrated was how learned
Classical conditioning apparatus. An experimental arrangement similar to the one depicted here (taken
from Yerkes & Morgulis, 1909) has typically been used in demonstrations of classical conditioning,
although Pavlov's original setup (see inset) was quite a bit simpler. The dog is restrained in a harness.
A tone is used as the conditioned stimulus (eS) and the presentation of meat powder is used as the
unconditioned stimulus (UeS). The tube inserted into the dog's salivary gland allows precise
measurement of its salivation response. The pen and rotating drum of paper on the left are used to
maintain a continuous record of salivary flow. (Inset) The less elaborate setup that Pavlov originally
used to collect saliva on each trial is shown here (Goodwin, 1991).
the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is a stimulus the t evokes an unconditioned
Response without previous conditioning. The unconditioned response (UCR) is an unlearned reaction
to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning.
In contrast, the link between the tone and salivation was established through conditioning. It is
therefore called a conditioned association. Thus, the
Conditioned stimulus (CS) is a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the
capacity to evoke a conditioned response. The conditioned response (CR) is a learned reaction to a
conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.
a trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli
In many instances, the conditioned responses are physiological reactions that are just the opposite of
the normal effects of the drugs (Siegel et aI., 2000). These opponent responses, which have been seen
as the result of conditioning with narcotics, stimulants, and alcohol, are called compensatory CRs
because they partially compensate for some drug effects. These compensatory CRs help to maintain
homeostasis (internal balance) in physiological processes
Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning something.
Pavlov theorized that the acquisition of a conditioned response depends on stimulus contiguity.
Stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in time and space. Instead, the right circumstances
produce extinction, the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency.
What leads to extinction in classical conditioning? The consistent presentation of the conditioned
stimulus alone, without the unconditioned stimulus. For example, when Pavlov consistently presented
only the tone to a previously conditioned dog, the tone gradually lost its capacity to elicit the response
Spontaneous recover is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to
the conditioned stimulus. Pavlov (1927) observed this phenomenon in some of his pioneering studies.
He fully extinguished a dog's CR of salivation to a tone and then returned the dog to its home cage for a
"rest interval" (a period of nonexposure to the CS). On a subsequent day, when the dog was brought
back to the experimental chamber for retesting, the tone was sounded and the salivation response
reappeared. Although it had returned, the rejuvenated response was weak.
If a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response
will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place
This phenomenon, called the renewal effect, along with the evidence on spontaneous recovery,
suggests that extinction somehow suppresses a conditioned response rather than erasing a learned
In other words, extinction does not appear to lead to Unlearning you might cringe at the sound of a
jeweller's as well as a dentist's drill. These are examples of stimulus generalization. Stimulus
generalization occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in
the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
Generalization Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a
specific stimulus doe not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original
First, you condition a dog to salivate in response to the sound of a tone by pairing the tone with meat
powder. Once the tone is firmly established as a CS, you pair the tone with a new stimulus; let's say a
red light, for 15 trials. You then present the red light alone, without the tone. Will the dog salivate in