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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

HH PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS PERSONALITY MODULE 40 PERSONALITY: a person’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES: view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences FREE ASSOCIATION: in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing PSYCHOANALYSIS: Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions UNCONSCIOUS: according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware  some thoughts stores were in a preconscious area  unacceptable passions and thoughts that we repress - without our awareness, these troublesome feelings and ideas would affect the work we choose, the beliefs we hold, our daily habits and our troubling symptoms - the content of a dream( manifest content) = unconscious wishes( latent content) ID: unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle demanding immediate gratification EGO: the largely conscious “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain SUPEREGO: the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES: the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES: STAGE FOCUS Oral(0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth- sucking, biting, chewing Anal(18-36 months) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control Phallic(3-6 years) Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings Latency(6 to puberty) A phase of dormant sexual feelings Genital(puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests OEDIPUS COMPLEX: according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father  electra complex IDENTIFICATION: the process by which according to Freud, children incorporate heir parents’ values into their developing superegos  gender identity FIXATION: according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved  orally overindulged/ deprived  passive dependence/ exaggerated denial SIX DEFENSE MECHANISMS: DEFENSE MECHANISM UNCONSCIOUS PROCESS EMPLOYED TO AVOID ANXIETY- AROUSING THOUGHTS OR FEELINGS Regression Retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated Reaction Formation Switching unacceptable impulses into opposites Projection Disguising one’s own threatening impulses by attributing them to others Rationalization Offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one’s actions Displacement Shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person Denial Refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities DEFENSE MECHANISMS: in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality  function indirectly/ unconsciously REPRESSION: in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories - pioneer psychoanalysts called neo- Freudians accepted his basic ideas  id, ego & superego  unconscious  shaping of personality in childhood  dynamics of anxiety  defense mechanisms - Alfred Adler & Karen Horney believed that childhood was social, NOT sexual  Adler who proposed the inferiority complex – believed much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood inferiority feelings that trigger our strivings for superiority and power  Horney said childhood anxiety triggers our desire for love and security. Women have weak superegos and suffer from “penis envy” - Carl Jung agreed that the unconscious exerts are a powerful influence  he believed we also have a collection unconscious – explains spiritual concerns that are deeply rooted and why people in different cultures share certain myths and images( e.g. mother as a symbol of nurturance) PROJECTIVE TESTS: a personality test. Such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics  RORSCHACH INKBLOT TEST: the most widely used protective test, a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots - Freud’s theory offers after-the-fact explanations of any characteristic, yet fails to predict such behaviors and traits  you cannot criticize Freudian theory for not making testable predictions - repression became a widely accepted concept used to explain hypnotic phenomena and psychological disorders  apparently lost and recovered memories of childhood traumas  prolonged stress in severely abused children might disrupt memory by damaging hippocampus BUT the reality is that high stress hormones enhance memory - to researches the unconscious involves:  the schemas that automatically control our perceptions and interpretations  the priming by stimuli to which we have not consciously attended  the right-hemisphere activity that enables the split-brain patient’s left hand to carry out an instruction the patient cannot verbalize  the implicit memories that operate without conscious recall, even among those with amnesia  the emotions that activate instantly, before conscious analysis  the self- concept and stereotypes that automatically and unconsciously influence how we process information about ourselves and others - the false consensus effect- the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors TERROR- MANAGEMENT THEORY: a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people’s emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death MODULE 41 HUMANISTIC THEORIES: view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth - Maslow proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs  if our psychological needs are met, we become concerned with personal safety  if we achieve a sense of security, we then seek to love, to be loved and to love ourselves = self-esteem = self-actualization SELF-ACTUALIZATION: according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential  self-aware and self- accepting, open and spontaneous, loving and caring and not paralyzed by others opinions  secure in the sense of who they were, interest were problem- centered rather than self- centered  focus energies on a specific task enjoyed one deep relationship rather than many superficial ones  been moved by spiritual or personal peak experiences - Rogers believed that people are basically good and are endowed with self- actualizing tendencies - Rogers believed that a growth-promoting climate required three conditions: 1) GENIUSENESS: when people are genuine, they are open with their own feelings, drop their facades, and are transparent and self- disclosing 2) ACCEPTANCE: when people are accepting they offer unconditional positive regard 3) EMPATHY: when people are empathetic, they share and mirror others’ feelings and reflect their meanings UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD: according to Roger, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person SELF-CONCEPT: all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?” - when the ideal and the actual self are nearly alike, Rogers said the self-concept is positive - Critics believe that the humanistic perspective is:  Vague and subjective- if taken other heroes the definition of self- actualization would have been different  the individualism encourages by humanistic psychology leads to self- indulgence, selfishness and erosion of moral restraints humanistic psychologists believe that a secure, non-defensive self-accepting person is the first step towards loving others – exhibit less defensive attitudes  It is naïve- we may become apathetic (denial or despair) MODULE 42 TRAITS: a characteristic pattern of behaviour or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports  Allport was concerned with describing traits - By placing people on several trait dimensions simultaneously, psychologists can describe countless individual personality variations  The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test - Two basic traits: 1) FACTOR ANALYSIS- a statistical procedure used to identify clusters of test items that tap basic components of a trait Two primary dimensions:  Extraversion- introversion  Stability-instability 2) BIOLOGY & PERSONALITY- our biology influences our personality; our genes have much to say about temperament and behavioral style that help define our pe
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