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PSYC 1010- (MODULES 20-22) LEARNING.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS LEARNING MODULE 20 LEARNING: the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information and behaviours  We are able to adapt to our environment  Learn to expect and prepare for significant events = classical conditioning  Learn to repeat acts that bring rewards and avoid acts that bring unwanted results= operant conditioning  Learn new behaviours by observing events and watching others through language we learn things we have neither experienced nor observed= cognitive learning - John Locke & David Hume say we learn by association  Operate subtly, feed our habitual behaviours ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING: learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning) or a response and its consequence (operant conditioning) - The process of learning associations is conditioning, and it takes two main forms: 1) Classic Conditioning- learn to associate two stimuli and thus to anticipate events  STIMULUS: any event/situation that evokes a response 2) Operant Conditioning- learn to associate a response (our behaviour) and its consequence and thus we learn to repeat acts followed by good results and avoid acts followed by bad results COGNITIVE LEARNING: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others or through language  Observational learning lets us learn from others‟ experiences CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events  Ivan Pavlov BEHAVIOURISM: the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behaviour without reference to mental processes. Most psychologists today agree with (1) NOT with (2)  John B. Watson - Pavlov came upon an incidental observation- without fail, putting food in a dog‟s mouth caused the animal to salivate; the dog began salivating not only to that taste of the food, but also to the mere sight of the food, the food dish or the person delivering the food  Pavlov considered these „psychic secretions‟ until he realized that these respondent behaviours pointed to a simple but important form of learning RESPONDENT BEHAVIOUR: behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus NEUTRAL STIMULUS (NS): in classical conditioning, a stimulus the elicits no response before conditioning UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UR): in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US)(food) UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (US): in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response (UR) CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR): in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (now conditioned) stimulus (CS) CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS): in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR) US) [food]------------- (UR) [salivation] (Neutral) [Bell] + [food] (CS) [Bell] ------------- (CR) [salivation] - Pavlov and his associated explored five major conditioning processes: 1) Acquisition 2) Extinction 3) Spontaneous Recovery 4) Generalization 5) Discrimination ACQUISITION: in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus (NS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) so that the neutral stimulus (NS) begins triggering the conditioned response (CR). In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response  How much time should elapse between the NS and the US= not much  Conditioning helps an animal survive and reproduce- by responding to cues that help it gain food, avoid dangers, locate mates, and produce offspring HIGH-ORDER CONDITIONING: a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus (CS) in one conditioned experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus (NS), creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.  E.g. an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone  Also called second-order conditioning EXTINCTION: the diminishing of a conditioned response (CR); occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditional stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY: the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response (CR) GENERALIZATION: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus (CS) to elicit similar responses DISCRIMINATION: in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus (US) - Why does Pavlov‟s work remain so important? 1) Many other responses to many other stimuli can be classically conditioned in many other organisms 2) Showed us how a process such a learning can be studied objectively - Pavlov‟s work also provided a basis for Watson‟s idea that human emotions and behaviours, though biologically influenced are a bundle of conditioned responses  “Little Albert”- showed Albert a white rat, as Little Albert reached to touch it, struck a hammer against a steel bar behind his head (elicited fear every time he went to grab the rat) MODULE 21 - B.F. Skinner‟s work elaborated on what psychologist Edward L. Thorndike called the law of effect LAW OF EFFECT: Thorndike‟s principle that behaviours followed by favourable consequences become more likely, and that behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likely  Skinner developed a behavioural technology that revealed principles of behaviour control- enabled him to teach pigeon‟s unpigeon-like behaviours (developed a Skinner Box) OPERANT CHAMBER: in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner Box) containing a bar or key than an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforce; attached devices recorded the animal‟s rate of bar pressing or key pecking  Acts out a concept of reinforcement REINFORCEMENT: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behaviour it follows SHAPING: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guide behaviour toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour  Leads to successive approximations  Also helps us understand what nonverbal organisms perceive by introducing a discriminative stimulus- shaping them to respond to one stimulus but not to another POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT (PR): increasing behaviours by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT (NR): increasing behaviours by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response  Note: negative reinforcement is NOT a punishment PRIMARY REINFORCER: an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need  Are unlearned CONDITIONED REINFORCER: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer  Also known as a secondary reinforcer  E.g. if a rat in a Skinner box learns that a light reliably signals a food delivery, the rat will work to turn on the light - Before preforming “wanted” behaviour, a hungry rat will engage in a sequence of “unwanted” behaviours; scratching, sniffing etc.  if you present food immediately after any of these behaviours= likeliness to repeat rewarded behaviour  if delay lasts longer than about 30 seconds, the rat will not learn to press he bar= reinforced other incidental behaviours - unlike rats, human responds to delayed reinforcers  paycheck at the end of the month, good grade at the end of the semester etc.  must learn delayed gratification - small but immediate consequences( watching late-night TV) are sometimes more alluring than big but delayed consequences( feeling alert tomorrow) REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE: a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT: reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs  candy machine fails to deliver a chocolate bar twice in a row, we stop putting money into it PARTIAL(INTERMITTENT) REINFORCEMENT: reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement  slot machines reward gamblers in much the same way- occasionally and unpredictably  hope springs eternal FIXED-RATIO SCHEDULE: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforcers a response only after a specified number of responses  coffee shops may reward us with a free drink after every 10 purchased VARIABLE-RATIO SCHEDULE: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses  slot- machine plays and fly-casting anglers; reinforces increase as the number of responses increases= high rates of responding FIXED-INTERVAL SCHEDULE: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed  people check more frequently for mail as the delivery date approaches, a hungry child jiggles the Jell-O more often to see if it has set , pigeons peck keys more rapidly as the time for reinforcement draws nearer VARIABLE-INTERVAL SCHEDULE: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals  the message that finally rewards persistence in rechecking for e-mail or Facebook response - in general, response rates are higher when reinforcement is linked to the number of responses(ratio schedule) rather than to time( interval schedule)  BUT responding is more consistent when reinforcement is unpredictable (variable schedule) then when it is predictable( fixed schedule) SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Fixed Variable Ratio Every so many: After an unpredictable reinforcement after every number: nth behaviour, such as buy reinforcement after a 10 coffees, get 1 free, or perrandom number of day per product unit behaviours, as when playing produced w
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