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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY MODULE 43 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another ATTRIBUTION THEORY: the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition  Fritz Heider 1) Dispositional attribution- person’s stable, enduring traits 2) Situational attribution – attribute it to the situation FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR: the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of person disposition - When we explain our behavior, we are sensitive to how behavior changes with the situation  We more often attribute our intentional and admirable actions not to situations but to our own good reasons  More likely to apply error when an individual acts badly  Social & economic effects of attribution- often assume “people generally get what they deserve; those who don’t work are freeloader; those who take initiative can still get ahead” ATTITUDE: feelings, often influenced by our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events - Persuasion efforts generally take two forms: 1) PERIPHERAL ROUTE PERSUASION: occurs when people are influences by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness 2) CENTRAL ROUTE PERSUASION: occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts  Attitudes follow behavior FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR PHENOMENON: the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request  Start small and build big ROLE: a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave - We have seen that actions can affect attitudes, sometimes turning prisoners into collaborators, doubters into believers, and compliant guards into abusers- why>  When we become aware that our attitudes and actions don’t coincide, we experience tension, or cognitive dissonance COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY: the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent  “If I chose to do it (or say it), I must believe in it”  We cannot control all our feelings, but we can influence them by altering our behavior - Cruel acts shape the self, but so do acts of good will. Act as though you like someone, and you soon may. Changing our behavior can change how we think about others and how we feel about ourselves MODULE 44 - We are natural mimics, unconsciously imitating others’ expressions, postures, and voice tones  Tanya Chartrand &John Bargh captured mimicry= chameleon effect - Automatic mimicry helps us to empathize- to feel what others are feeling  Mood linkage- sharing up and down moods - Suggestibility and mimicry are subtle types of conformity CONFORMITY: adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group or standard - We are more likely to conform when we:  Are made to feel incompetent or insecure  Are in a group with at least three people  Are in a group in which everyone else agrees  Admire the group’s status and attractiveness  Have not made a prior commitment to any response  Know that others in the group will observe our behavior  Are from a culture that strongly encourages respect for social standards NORMATIVE SOCIAL INFLUENCE: influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE: influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality - Western Europeans and people in most English- speaking countries tend to prize individualism  People in many Asian, African, and Latin American countries place a higher value on honoring group standards - Social psychologist, Stanley Milgram  Obedience experiment- shock o Pointed out that, after the participants learned of the deception and actual research purposes, vitally none regretted taking part – provoked less enduring stress than university students o Obedience was highest when: 1) The person giving the orders was close at hand and was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure 2) The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institutions 3) The victim was depersonalized or at a distance, even in another room 4) There were no role models for defiance  Jerry Burger replicated Milgram’s basic experiment - Participants in Asch & Milgram’s experiments confronted to a dilemma we all face frequently: Do I adhere to my own standard, or do I respond to others?  Kindness vs. obedience= obedience  After the first acts of compliance or resistance, attitudes began to follow and justify behavior SOCIAL FACILITATION: stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others  Norman Triplett  Tougher tasks, people perform worse when observers or others working on the same task are present - What you do well, you are likely to do even better in front of an audience, especially a friendly audience; what you normally find difficult may seem all but impossible when you are being watched SOCIAL LOAFING: the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable - What causes social loafing? Three thing: 1) People acting as a part of a group feel less accountable, and therefore worry less about what others think 2) Group members may view their individual contributions as dispensable 3) When group members share equally in the benefits, regardless of how much they contribute, some may slack off; unless highly motivated and strongly identified with the group, people may free-ride on others’ efforts DEINDIVIDUATION: the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity - Research also shows that interacting with others can similarly have both bad and good effects GROUP POLARIZATION: the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclination through discussion within the group o Ideological separation + deliberation = polarization between groups o Separation + conversation = polarization - By linking and magnifying the inclinations of like minded people, the Internet can be very, very bad, but also very, very good - Irving Janis studied the decision- making procedures leading to the ill-fated invasion  no one spoke strongly against the idea, assumption of unanimous vote GROUPTHINK: the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives  groupthink is prevented when a leader welcomes various opinions, invited experts’ critiques of developing plans, and assigns people to identify possible problems - Social control (the power of the situation) and personal control (the power of the individual) - The power of one or two individuals to sway minorities is minority influence  When you are the minority, you are far more likely to sway the majority if you hold firmly to your position and don’t waffle MODULE 45 PREJUDICE: an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action - Prejudice is a three-part mixture of: 1) Beliefs stereotypes 2) Emotions  hostility/fear 3) Predispositions to actions  discriminate STEREOTYPE: a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people DISCRIMINATION: unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members - “Modern prejudice” rejecting immigrant minorities as job applicants for supposedly nonracial reasons  Overt prejudice wanes, subtle prejudice lingers - Gender prejudice  Studies have shown, however, that most people feel more positively about women in general than they do about men o Women have more desirable traits (nurturing, sensitive, less aggressive) JUST-WORLD PHENOMENON: the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get -
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