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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS CONSCIOUSNESS & THE TWO-TRACK MIND MODULE 7 - Psychology was “ the description anthexplanation of states of consciousness”  But during the first half of the 20 century let many psychologist including those in the merging school of behaviorism to turn to direct observations of Behavior  “The science of behavior” - Neuroscience advances related brain activity to sleeping, dreaming, and other mental states  Hypnosis and drugs, the importance of cognition CONSCIOUSNESS: our awareness of ourselves and our environment  Various states of consciousness – sleep, waking and various altered states 1) Spontaneously- daydreaming, drowsiness, dreaming 2) Physiologically Induced- Hallucinations, orgasm, food/oxygen starvation 3) Psychologically Induced- sensory deprivation, hypnosis, Mediation COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory, and language)  Two minds; conscious and unconscious track that perform dual processing DUAL PROCESSING: the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks BLINDSIGHT: a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it  Visual perception track enables us “to think about the world”  Visual action track guides out moment-to-moment movements SELECTIVE ATTENTION: the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus  Cocktail party effect- ability to attend to one voice among many INATTENTIONAL BLINDNESS: failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere  Focusing attention on some part of our environment CHANGE BLINDNESS: failing to notice changes in the environment  Choice blindness  Pop out; some stimuli draw our eye and demand our attention MODULE 8 CIRCADIAN RHYTHM: the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24- hour cycle  Age & experience can alter our circadian rhythm - About every 90 minutes, we cycle through for distinct sleep stages REM SLEEP: rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active ALPHA WAVES: the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state SLEEP: periodic, natural, easily reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation - The transition is marked by the slowed breathing and the irregular brain waves of non-REM stage 1 sleep  NREM-1 - During brief NREM-1 sleep you may experience fantastic images resembling hallucinations HALLUCINATIONS: false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus  Hypnagogic sensations- falling, sudden jerk, or have floating weightlessly - Relax more deeply and begin about 20 minutes of NREM-2 sleep  Sleep spindles- bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity - Deep sleep of NREM-3 which lasts about 30 minutes, brain emits large, slow delta waves DELTA WAVES: the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep - You return through NREM-2 (where you spend about half your night) = REM sleep; heart rate rises, breathing becomes rapid and irregular, and every half- minute eyes dart around in momentary bursts of activity behind closed lids (the start of a dream)  In scary dreams genitals become aroused during REM sleep regardless of whether the dream‟s content is sexual - Your brain‟s motor cortex is active during REM sleep, but brainstem blocks its messages  Essentially paralyzed, cannot be easily awakened= sleep paralysis - REM sleep is sometimes called paradoxical sleep; the body is internally aroused, with waking-like brain activity yet asleep and externally calm - The sleep cycle repeats itself about every 90 minutes for younger adults (more frequently for older adults) - NREM-3 grows shorter and disappears, REM & NREM-2 sleep periods get longer  By morning we have spend 20-25% of an average night‟s sleep in REM sleep - Sleep patterns are genetically influenced, culturally influenced - Proteins control the circadian clock by triggering signals to the brain‟s suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)  A pair of grain-of-rice-sized, 10,000 cell clusters in the hypothalamus  The SCN causes the brain‟s pineal gland to decrease its production of the sleep-induced hormone melatonin in the morning and to increase it in the evening  Bright light helps reset the biological clock - Sleep Theories: 1) Sleep Protects 2) Sleep helps us recuperate 3) Sleep helps restore & rebuild our fading memories of the day’s experiences 4) Sleep feeds creative thinking 5) Sleep supports growth - Sleep loss is a predictor of depression  REM sleep‟s processing of emotional experiences helps protect against depression  Can make you feel fatter- increases ghrelin, a hunger-arousing hormone, and decreases its hunger-suppressing, leptin. Also increases cortisol a stress hormone that stimulates the body to make fat  Sleep deprivation can suppress immune cells that fight off viral infections and cancer  Slows reactions and increases errors on visual attention tasks INSOMNIA: recurring problems in falling or staying asleep  Quick fixes- sleeping pills and alcohol but can aggravate problem NARCOLEPSY: a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The suffer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times - Genes help sculpt the brain  Relative absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces orexin (hypocretin) SLEEP APNEA: a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings  Associated with obesity NIGHT TERRORS: a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terror occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered - Sleepwalking; another NREM-3 sleep disorder and sleeptalking are usually childhood disorder and run in the family DREAM: a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person‟s mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer‟s delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it  At least one negative even or emotion- common theme are repeatedly failing in an attempt to do something; of being attacked, pursued or rejected or experiencing misfortune  Dreams with sexual imagery occur less often than you might think - Sensory stimuli; a particular odor or sound may be instantly woven into the dream story  But we do not remember anything that happens 5 minutes just before we fall asleep= lost from memory - Dream theorists have proposed several explanations of why we dream: 1) To satisfy our own wishes  Manifest content  Latent content 2) To file away memories  The information- processing
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