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Chapter

PSYC 1010-(MODULES 23,25,26) MEMORY

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS MEMORY MODULE 23 MEMORY: the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information  RECALL: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test  RECOGNITION: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple- choice test  RELEARNING: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again - The more frequently you repeat a list aloud on day 1, the fewer repetitions is required to relearn the list on day 2  Additional rehearsal (overlearning) of verbal information increases retention, especially when practice is distributed over time  We remember more than we can recall - Information- processing models are analogies that compare human memory to a computer’s operations. Thus, to remember any event we must  ENCODE: get information into our brain  STORAGE: retain that information  RETRIEVAL: later get the information back out - Our dual-track brain processes many things simultaneously (unconsciously) by means of parallel processing  Connectionism views memories as products of interconnected neural networks. Specific memories arise from particular activation patterns within these networks, Every time you learn something new, your brain’s neural connections change, forming and strengthening pathways that allow you to interact with and learn from your constantly changing environment - Richard Atkinson & Richard Shiffrin proposed a three-stage model: 1) We first record-to-be-remembered information as a fleeting sensory memory  The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system 2) From there, we process information into short-term memory, where we encode it through rehearsal  Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten 3) Finally, information moves into long-term memory for later retrieval  The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills and experiences WORKING MEMORY: a new understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory (central executive) EXPLICIT MEMORY: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and ‘declare’  Also called declarative memory - Our mind operates on two tracks 1) EFFORTFUL PROCESSING: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort 2) AUTOMATIC PROCESSING: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings  Produces implicit memory o Retention independent of conscious recollection (also called nondeclarative memory) - Implicit memories include procedural memory for automatic skills (e.g. how to ride a bike), and classically conditioned associations among stimuli  Automatically process information about space, time and frequency - Effortful processing begins with sensory information, which feeds our active working memory  Our sensory memory records a momentary image of a scene or an echo of a sound ICONIC MEMORY: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second ECHOIC MEMORY: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds - George Miller proposed that short-term memory can retain about seven information bits  Other researchers have confirmed that we can recall about 7 digits, 6 letters, or 5 words - Young adults have more working-memory capacity, so they can use their mental workspace more efficiently  Greater ability to multitask  Can reflect intelligence levels CHUNKING: organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically MNEMONICS: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices  Peg-word system- memorizing a jingle and then visually associating the peg words with to-be-remembered items  Acronym- chunking information into a more familiar form by creating a word - Hierarchies composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts  Organizing memory concepts into categories SPACING EFFECT: the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long- term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice  Distributed Practice vs. Massed practice (cramming) TESTING EFFECT: enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning SHALLOW PROCESSING: encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words DEEP PROCESSING: encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention - the amount of information remembered depends both on the time spent learning and on your making it meaningful for deep proces
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