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PSYC 1010-(MODULES 52,53) THERAPY.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis

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PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS THERAPY MODULE 52 PSYCHOTHERAPY: treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist, and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth BIOMEDICAL THERAPY: prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person’s physiology ECLECTIC APPROACH: an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy PSYCHOANALYSIS & PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY PSYCHOANALYSIS: Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the therapist’s interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight GOALS - Presumes that healthier, less anxious living becomes possible when people release the energy they had previously devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts - Aimed to bring patients’ repressed or disowned feelings into conscious awareness TECHNIQUES - Emphasizes the formative power of childhood experiences and their ability to mold the adult = free association RESISTANCE: in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material INTERPRETATION: in psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meaning, resistances, and other significant behaviours and events in order to promote insight TRANSFERRING: in psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent) PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY: therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forced and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight - Patients explore and gain perspective into defended-against thoughts and feelings  Restoring awareness of their own wishes and feelings, and their awareness as well, of their reactions against those wishes and feelings - Interpersonal psychotherapy; a brief (12-16 session) variation of psychodynamic therapy that has effectively treated depressions  Helps people gain insight into the roots of their difficulties, its goal is symptom relief  Concentration on current relationships and on helping people improve their relationship skills HUMANISTIC THERAPIES - The humanistic perspective has emphasized people’s inherent potential for self- fulfillment INSIGHT THERAPY: a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses - Humanistic therapists differ from psychoanalytic therapists in many ways:  Humanistic therapists aim to boost people’s self-fulfillment by helping them grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance  Promoting this growth, not curing illness, is the focus of therapy  The path to growth is taking immediate responsibility for one’s feelings and actions, rather than uncovering hidden determinants  Conscious thoughts are more important than the unconscious  The present and future are more important than the past CLIENT- CENTERED THERAPY: a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients’ growth (nondirective therapy) ACTIVE LISTENING: empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Roger’s client-centered therapy UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD: a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES BEHAVIOUR THERAPY: therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors CLASSICAL CONDITIONING TECHNIQUES COUNTERCONDITIONING: a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning a) Exposure Therapies EXPOSURE THERAPIES: behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treats anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to things they fear and avoid SYSEMATIC DESENSITIZATION: a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias --> substitutes a positive (relaxed) response for a negative (fearful) response to a harmless stimulus i. Construct a hierarchy ii. Progressive Relaxation iii. Imagine a mildly anxiety-arousing situation  If situation causes you to feel anxious, therapist would instruct you to switch off mental image and go back to deep relaxation; this imagined scene is repeatedly paired with relaxation until you feel no trace of anxiety iv. Move to actual situations and practice what you have imaged before VIRTUAL REALITY EXPOSURE THERAPY: an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking b) Aversive Conditioning AVERSIVE CONDITIONING: a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol) --> Substitutes a negative (aversive) response for a positive response to a harmful stimulus (such as alcohol) - The problem is that in therapy, cognition influences conditioning  People know that outside the therapist’s office they can drink without fear of nausea; the ability to discriminate between the aversive conditioning situation and all other situation can limit the treatment’s effectiveness o Thus, therapists often use aversive conditioning in combination with other treatments OPERANT CONDITIONING - Behavior therapists can practice behavior modification; reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behavior  Therapists use positive reinforcers to shape behavior in a step-by-step manner, rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior - Rewards vary; reinforcing power of attention is sufficient, others require concrete rewards such as food TOKEN ECONOMY: an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behaviour and can later exchange tokens for various privileges or treats - Critics of behavior modification express two concerns 1) How durable are the behaviours? The behavior will endure if therapists wean patients from the token by shifting them toward other, real-life rewards such as social approval 2) Is it right for one human to control another’s behaviour? Those who set up token economies deprive people of something they desire and decide which behaviors to reinforce; Some patients request the therapy and the control already exists- rewards and punishers are already maintaining destructive behavior patterns (it’s more humane than being institutionalized or punished) COGNITIVE THERAPIES COGNITIVE THERAPY: therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions a) Rational- Emotive Behavior Therapy RATIONAL-EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY: a confrontational cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis that vigorously challenges people’s illogical, self- defeating attitudes and assumptions  Change people’s thinking by revealing the ‘absurdity’ of their self-defeating ideas, and you will change their self-defeating feelings and enable healthier behaviours E.g. Lost job --> internal beliefs (‘I’m worthless. It’s hopeless’) --> Depression Lost job --> internal beliefs (‘ My boss is a jerk, I deserve something better) --> No depression b) Aaron Beck’s Therapy for Depression o Analyzed the dreams of depressed people; found recurring negative themes of loss, rejection, and abandonments that extended into their waking thoughts  Sought to reverse clients’ catastrophizing beliefs about themselves, their situations and their futures using cognitive therapy o We often think in words, so getting people to change what they say to themselves is an effective way to change their thinking o Stress inoculation training; teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations c) Cognitive- Behavioral Therapy COGNITIVTE- BEHAVIORAL THERAPY: a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)  It seeks to make people aware of their irrational negative thinking, to replace with news ways of thinking, and to practice the more positive approach in everyday settings o Behavioral change is typically addressed first, followed by sessions on cognitive change; focuses on maintaining both and preventing relapses o Effective for those with anxiety disorders, mood disorders and anorexia nervosa GROUP & FAMILY THERAPIES GROUP THERAPY: therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction - Benefits:  It saves therapists’ time and clients’ money  It offers a social laboratory for exploring social behaviors and developing social skills  It enables people to see that others share their problems  It provides feedback as clients try out new ways of behaving a) Family Therapy FAMILY THERAPY: therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family
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