PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter Final: American Psychological Association, James Mckeen Cattell, Margaret Floy Washburn

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
York SOS: Students Offering Support
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PSYC 1010
Midterm-AID
Review Package
Tutors:
Bryan Choi | bryan888@yorku.ca
Alexandra Olteanu | olteanu7@yorku.ca
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York SOS: Students Offering Support
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Preface
This document is intended for PSYC 1010 students who are looking for an additional
resource to assist their studies in preparation for the course midterm. It has been
created with regard to Dr. Jubis’ Fall/Winter 2010/2011 sections and is subject to
change for future courses.
References
Weiten, W., & McCann, D. (2010). Psychology: Themes and variations (2nd
Canadian ed.). Toronto, ON: Nelson.
Contents
Tips for General Midterm Success...................................................................................2
Chapter 1: The Evolution of Society.................................................................................3
Chapter 2: The Research Enterprise in Psychology.......................................................15
Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment.......................................24
Appendix B: Statistical Methods.....................................................................................37
Tips for General Midterm Success
1. Use acronyms and other mnemonics to remember concepts. For example, use
an acronym like “ocean” to remember the Big Five personality traits: openness to
experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism.
2. Do practice multiple choice questions. These practice questions will assess your
understanding of what you’ve learned and help you identify areas of weakness. They
are found in textbooks, on textbook companion websites, and/or provided by your
professor. Psychology: Themes and Variations has questions in it and on its online
companion website.
3. Use logic and process of elimination on multiple choice questions. For example,
if you know one of the answer choices is incorrect, then an “all of the above” answer
found in the same question must also be incorrect.
4. Practice writing short answer questions. If you know ahead of time what the
questions will be on the short answer section, make a list of essential points you want to
address for each question and practice writing it on paper. If you don’t know what
questions will be on the short answer section, you could try scanning the material to find
concepts that have enough content to be a possible short answer question. Again, you
can make a list of essential points for each and practice writing it. Even if they don’t
show up on the short answer section, doing this helps solidify what you learned.
5. Get adequate sleep the night before your test. Sleeping at night helps consolidate
what you learned during the day into memory so that it is better remembered in future.
Not only does staying up late the night before a test destroy your concentration during
the test the next day, but your brain has not effectively learned the material.
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York SOS: Students Offering Support
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………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Chapter 1: The Evolution of Society
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed
Psychology
- “study of the mind” (from Greek: psyche means soul, spirit, or mind, logos means
study of a subject)
Wilhelm Wundt: German professor who wanted to establish psychology’s
independence from philosophy and physiology
- favoured scientific approach, which matches the intellectual climate of his time
- 1879: established the first psychology lab at the University of Leipzig
- 1881: established first psychological journal
- credited as founder of psychology
- primary focus was on consciousness: awareness of immediate experience
o psychology became scientific study of consciousness
- generated around 54,000 pages of books and articles in career
- students from all over came to study with Wundt, and brought what they learned
back to their respective places
G. Stanley Hall: contributor to rapid growth of psychology in America
- studied briefly with Wundt
- established first American psychology lab and journal
- driving force behind establishment of American Psychological Association (APA)
o first APA president
- psychology flourished in the US possibly because American universities were
more open to new disciplines, as opposed to traditional European universities
Structuralism: psychology should analyze consciousness’ basic elements and
investigate the relations of these elements (ex. sensations, feelings, images,
perception)
- was at ends with functionalism
- advocated by Edward Titchener (studied with Wundt)
- used introspection: careful self-observation of one’s conscious experiences
(mental processes)
o subjects trained to be objectively aware of their experience
o subjects typically exposed to auditory tones, illusions, visual stimulations
- weakness: dependence on an individual’s reflection, no objective evaluation
Functionalism: psychology should investigate function/purpose of consciousness
- introduced by William James, a brilliant American scholar
- chose to pursue psychology rather than medicine
- published Principles of Psychology (1890)
o probably most influential text in psychology’s history
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Document Summary

This document is intended for psyc 1010 students who are looking for an additional resource to assist their studies in preparation for the course midterm. It has been created with regard to dr. jubis" fall/winter 2010/2011 sections and is subject to change for future courses. Tips for general midterm success: use acronyms and other mnemonics to remember concepts. For example, use an acronym like ocean to remember the big five personality traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism: do practice multiple choice questions. These practice questions will assess your understanding of what you"ve learned and help you identify areas of weakness. They are found in textbooks, on textbook companion websites, and/or provided by your professor. Psychology: themes and variations has questions in it and on its online companion website: use logic and process of elimination on multiple choice questions.