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Chapter Final

Exam One Review The Evolution of Psychology (Chapter one), ..
Exam One Review The Evolution of Psychology (Chapter one), The Research Enterprise in Psychology (Chapter two), Personality: Theory, research and assessment (Chapter 12), Statistical Methods (Appendix B)

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

York SOS: Students Offering Support PSYC 1010 Midterm-AID Review Package Tutors: Bryan Choi | [email protected] Alexandra Olteanu | [email protected] 1 York SOS: Students Offering Support Preface This document is intended for PSYC 1010 students who are looking for an additional resource to assist their studies in preparation for the course midterm. It has been created with regard to Dr. Jubis Fall/Winter 2010/2011 sections and is subject to change for future courses. References Weiten, W., & McCann, D. (2010). Psychology: Themes and variations (2nd Canadian ed.). Toronto, ON: Nelson. Contents Tips for General Midterm Success...................................................................................2 Chapter 1: The Evolution of Society.................................................................................3 Chapter 2: The Research Enterprise in Psychology.......................................................15 Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment.......................................24 Appendix B: Statistical Methods.....................................................................................37 Tips for General Midterm Success 1. Use acronyms and other mnemonics to remember concepts. For example, use an acronym like ocean to remember the Big Five personality traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. 2. Do practice multiple choice questions. These practice questions will assess your understanding of what youve learned and help you identify areas of weakness. They are found in textbooks, on textbook companion websites, and/or provided by your professor. Psychology: Themes and Variations has questions in it and on its online companion website. 3. Use logic and process of elimination on multiple choice questions. For example, if you know one of the answer choices is incorrect, then an all of the above answer found in the same question must also be incorrect. 4. Practice writing short answer questions. If you know ahead of time what the questions will be on the short answer section, make a list of essential points you want to address for each question and practice writing it on paper. If you dont know what questions will be on the short answer section, you could try scanning the material to find concepts that have enough content to be a possible short answer question. Again, you can make a list of essential points for each and practice writing it. Even if they dont show up on the short answer section, doing this helps solidify what you learned. 5. Get adequate sleep the night before your test. Sleeping at night helps consolidate what you learned during the day into memory so that it is better remembered in future. Not only does staying up late the night before a test destroy your concentration during the test the next day, but your brain has not effectively learned the material. 2 York SOS: Students Offering Support Chapter 1: The Evolution of Society From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed Psychology - study of the mind (from Greek: psyche means soul, spirit, or mind, logos means study of a subject) Wilhelm Wundt: German professor who wanted to establish psychologys independence from philosophy and physiology - favoured scientific approach, which matches the intellectual climate of his time - 1879: established the first psychology lab at the University of Leipzig - 1881: established first psychological journal - credited as founder of psychology - primary focus was on consciousness: awareness of immediate experience o psychology became scientific study of consciousness - generated around 54,000 pages of books and articles in career - students from all over came to study with Wundt, and brought what they learned back to their respective places G. Stanley Hall: contributor to rapid growth of psychology in America - studied briefly with Wundt - established first American psychology lab and journal - driving force behind establishment of American Psychological Association (APA) o first APA president - psychology flourished in the US possibly because American universities were more open to new disciplines, as opposed to traditional European universities Structuralism: psychology should analyze consciousness basic elements and investigate the relations of these elements (ex. sensations, feelings, images, perception) - was at ends with functionalism - advocated by Edward Titchener (studied with Wundt) - used introspection: careful self-observation of ones conscious experiences (mental processes) o subjects trained to be objectively aware of their experience o subjects typically exposed to auditory tones, illusions, visual stimulations - weakness: dependence on an individuals reflection, no objective evaluation Functionalism: psychology should investigate function/purpose of consciousness - introduced by William James, a brilliant American scholar - chose to pursue psychology rather than medicine - published Principles of Psychology (1890) o probably most influential text in psychologys history 3 York SOS: Students Offering Support o psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences - James was heavily influenced by Darwins concept of natural selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time - argued structuralists studied static points and not the flow of the stream of consciousness - interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the demands of the real world - James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey began investigating mental testing, development in children, educational practice effectiveness, and behavioural differences in sexes o this new research attracted women to the field Margaret Floy Washburn: first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology wrote The Animal Mind (1908) which was a precursor to behaviourism Leta Hollingwoth: did work in childrens intelligence debunked theories on female inferiority Mary Whiton Calkins: first female president of the APA - most credit functionalism with winning over structuralism - fostered development of behaviourism and applied psychology Behaviourism: scientific psychology should only study observable behaviour (consciousness cant be observed) - founded by John B. Watson o proposed psychologists abandon research in consciousness o against mental processes research because they are private and cant be verified (includes thoughts, wishes, feelings that accompany behaviour) o psychology should study behaviour: any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism o argued that nurture (in nature versus nurture debate) is primarily responsible for behaviour made radical claim that he could take a random infant and turn he/she into any type of specialist) - goal became to relate overt behaviour (responses) to observable events in the environment (stimuli) o stimulus: detectable input from the environment - behavioural approach also called stimulus-response (S-R) psychology - emergence of behaviourism partly attributed to Ivan Pavlov: showed dogs could be trained to salivate in response to a auditory stimulus (example of a stimulus- response bond) - contributed to rise of animal research 4
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