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Chapter 10

Motivation – chapter 10 .docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Peter Khaiter

11/11/2013 2:58:00 PM Motivation – relates to the study of the processes involved in goal directed behavior. Goal directed behavior is often connected to a specific emotion For example: your goal on the first exam was to get an A. when you looked at your grade, what was your reaction? Story – Chantal Paticlerc Won 5 gold medals and set 3 world records Lost legs at age 13 and participate in wheelchair racing In 2004 she was named Canadian female athlete of the year and Canadian of the year When asked what drives her she states “ no matter what you do or what your dreams are, you always do it to achieve a goal and also to see what your limits are and eventually to see you have no limits “ Motivational theories and concepts Motives: needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people in certain directions Motivation involves goal directed behavior For example: research shows that street kids have little motivation Drive Theories Drive: is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension Example: when your bodys temperatures reaches to high or too low, automatic response occurs According to drive theories, when individuals experience a drive they are motivated to pursue actions that will lead to drive reduction For example: feeling hungry through class. The drive motivates you to eat something. eating reduces the drive and restores psychological equilibrium Drive theories can not explain all motivation Motivation may exsist without drive arousal For example: you may stop for ice cream after seeing an advertisement even though you aren’t hungry Incentive Theories Incentive theories- propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states an incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior ice cream, a juicy steak, an A on the exam, approval from friends are all incentivrs. Some of these incentives may reduce drives but others may not. drive and incentive models of motivation are often contrasted as push vs pull theories drive theories emphasizes how internal states of tension push people in certain directions. Incentive theories emphasizes how external stimuli pulls people in a certain direction. incentive theories emphasizes environmental factors and downplays biological bases of human motivation cant always obtain a good grade, cant always obtain goals desired – this is known as expectancy value models – incentive models according to expectancy value models - ones motivation to purse a particular course of action depends on two factors expectancy – ones chance of attaining the incentive value – the value of the desired incentive example: getting a promotion at work. It will dependon your estimate of the likelihood that you can snare the promotion (expectancy) and on how appealing the promotion is to you (value) Evolutionary Theories – david buss Motives can be best understood in terms of the adaptive problems they solved for our hunter gatherer ancestors Example: the need of rdominance is thought to be greater in men than in women because it could facilitate males’ reproductive success in a variety of ways Females may prefer mating with dominant males Dominant males may poach females from subordinate males Dominant males may intimidate male rivals in competition for sexual access Dominant males may acquire more material resources, which may increase mating opportunities David Buss Points out that its not by accident that achievement, power, dominance, and intimacy are among the most heavily studied social motives, as the satisfaction of each of these motives is likely to affect one’s reproductive success. The Range and Diversity of Human Motives Humans display an enormous diversity of motives Most theories (besides evolutionary) distinguish between biological motives , bodily needs, such as hunger, and social motives, social experiences, need of achievement. Biological motives – hunger, thirst, sex, temperature, sleep, activity and aggression (Henry Murray) Social motives – achievement, affiliation (social bonds), autonomy (independence), nurturance (nurish and protect others), play, order (tidiness, organization(, exhibition (impression to others) , dominance (influence or control others). People share the same biological motives, but social motives vary For example: we all need to eat but we don’t all acquire a need for orderliness. The motivation of Hunger and Eating Hunger is deceptive , it only looks simple Complex motivational system Factors Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) Brains on off switches for the control of hunger Current thinking: lateral and ventromedial areas of the hypothalamus are elements in the neural circuitry that regulates hunger Today scientists believe that there are two other areas Arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus Both of these play a larger role in the modulation of hunger Contemporary theories of hunger – focuses on neural circuits that pass through areas of the hypothalamus rather than on anatomical centres in the brain Glucose and digestive regulation Much of the doos taken into the body is converted into glucose, which circulates the blood Glucose – is a simple sugar that is an important source of energy Actions that decrease blood glucose level can increase hunger Actions that increase glucose level can make people feel satisfied Glucostatic theory Proposed that fluctuactions in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain where they influence the experience of hunger The digestive system also includes other mechanisms that influence hugner Walter cannon wasn’t completely wrong in saying the stomach regulates hunger After you have consumed food, cells in the stomach can send signals to the brain stem that inhibit further eating. Example: vagus nerves carries info about the stretching of the stomach walls which indicaes when the stomach is full. Other nerves carry satiety messages that depends on how rich in nutrients the contents of the stomach are. Hormonal Regulation Variety of homones in bloodstream also contribute to the regulation of hunger Insulin – hormone that must be present got cells to extract glucose from the blood Inadequate supply of insulin causes diabetes Ghrelin – causes stomach contractions and promotes hunger After food consumed hormone CCK released wgucg delivers satiety signals and reduces hunger Hormonal signals that influence hunger converge in the hypothalamus Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger Food availability and Related Cues Palatavility: the better the food tastes, the more people consume Quantity availability: people tend to consume whats put in front of them. The more people are served the more they will eat Variety: consumption increases when a greater variety of food is available Presence of others: people eat 44% more when they eat with other people as opposed to eating alone Ads on television also influences eating behaviours Eating is often a social action Learned Preverences and Habits Lettuce, eggs, chips, pizza, ice cream , chicken are preferences compared to dog meat or maggots. These preferences are acquired through learning Different cultures display different patterns of food consumption Conditioning plays a role in our own experience For example: going to a hockey game , sam alays heads first to the hotdog stand. This is because it is what he thinks of when he thinks of food at a hockey game Stress and Eating Stress leads to increased eating because people enjoy the treats that make them feel better. Eating and Weight: The roots of Obesity body mass index (BMI) – individuals weight divided by height squared. BMI over 30 is considered obese BMI between 25 and 29.9. are considered over weight Numbers from 1981 have gone up for obesity in adults and children Overweight people are more vulnerable to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory problems, gallbladder disease, stroke, arthritis, muscle and skeletal pain and some types of cancer. 21% of men and 39% of women at any given time are dieting Genetic Predisposition Some people can eat tons and not gain weight while others eat far less and gain more weight These differences are due to genetic basis Adoptive children resemble their biological parents rather than their adoptive parents when it came to BMI Sensitivity to External Cues – pg 450 Normal weight people –eating is regulated by internal signals Obese people are extrasensitive to external cues that affect hunger and are relatively insensitive to internal psychological needs Over weight people respond to the environmental cues – such as availability and attractiveness of food- this causes unnecessary eating Schachter manipulated external cues such as how tasty food appeared, how obvious its availability was and if it appeared to be dinner time. All of these cues were found to influence eating behavior of overweight people more than normal weight people Judith rodin condriticted his theory She noted that sight, smell and sound of a grilling steak (external cues) can elicit insulin which leads to increase hunger She also showed that not all overweight people are hypersensitive to external cues and normal weight people are not always insensitive to external food cues Stroebe concluded that external cues do have a greater impact on the food intake of obese people Herman and Polivy (2008) introduced a distinction between normative as opposed to sensory external cues normative cues – indicators of socially appropriate food intake – what, when and how much one should eat sensory cues – characteristics of the food itself – such as platability- makes people more or less likely to eat the food Polivy argued that it is sensory external cues that obese people are especially sensitive to The concept of Set Point People who lose weight on a diet have a rather stronger tendency to gain back all the weigh
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