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Chapter 6

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PSYC 1010
Peter Khaiter

11/11/2013 3:04:00 PM Learning: any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations Classical Conditioning Phobias are usually formed through classical conditioning Classical conditioning : is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus Also known as the Pavlovian conditioning Pavlov – studied the digestive process of dogs He would present meat powder to the dogs and then measure the amount of saliva from the dogs Dogs accustomed to the procedure started salivating before the meat was presented. They would respond to the clicky sound that was use to present the meat The tone started out as a neutral stimulus – it didn’t originally produce the response of saliva Terminology and procedures Terminology associated with classical conditioning UCS – Unconditioned Stimulus – stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning UCR – Unconditioned Response - an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning CS – conditioned stimulus – is a previously neutral stimulus that has , through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response CR – Conditioned Response – learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning The unconditioned response and the conditioned response consists of the same behvaiour The UCR and CR were both salivation in the dog experiment The UCS was the meat powder – salivation was an unconditioned response CS was the tone – salivation was a conditioned response Before conditioning – the UCS elicits the UCR but the neutral stimulus does not. NS- tone ---------- no response UCS- meat powder ----------UCR – salivation During conditioning – the NS is paired with the UCS NS – TONE and UCS – meat powder -------- UCR salivation After conditioning – NS alone elicits response, the NS is not a CS, and the response to it is a CR. CS- Tone ------- CR – salivation Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life Conditioned fear and anxiety Example: a student states her phobia of bridges. She was able to pinpoint childhood conditioning experiences as the source of her phobia. Her father use to carry on about the danger of the bridge that they had to cross to visit grandma If you cringe when you hear the sound of a dentist drill this is conditioned. You are relating pain to the drill , which becomes a CS making you cringe. Evaluating conditioning of attitudes Evaluative conditioning – refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that results from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli Example: funny cartoons paired eiyh 2 types of energy drinks increased participants liking of the drinks’ Puppies and children are very common stimulis Conditioning and Drug Effects Gradual recline in responsiveness to a drug with repeated use This is why people have to up the dose to get a high off of it after taking it for so long when drugs are taken in a new way or new setting the usual CR may not occur the drug may also have a much stronger impact than usual – this increases the risk of an overdose Basic processes in Classical Conditioning Acquisition: Forming new responses acquisition – refers to the initial stage of learning something Pavlov theorized that the acquisition of a CR depends on the stimulus contiquity Stimuli are contagious if they occur together in time and space Contiguity alone doesn’t automatically produce conditioning Extinction: weakening conditioned responses The disappearance or weakening of conditioned response Conditioned stimuli is alone Spontaneous recovery : resurrecting responses Reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus Renewal effect – is a response is extinguished in a different environment that it was acquired, the extinguished respons will reappear if the animal is returned to its original environment where acquisition took place Example: if you manage to get rid of cringing at the sound of a drill right now chances are that it will come back later on Little Albert Wasn’t afraid of a rat until a rat was presented with a loud noise. he was fearful of the rat as the rat is the CS eliciting a fear response Stimulus Discrimination occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus for example: your dog gets excited when he hears your car pull in the driveway. The dog will get excited with every car that pulls in unless if your car has a distinctive sound. If it does the dog will learn to only get excited when that car pulls in. this is because your car is the CS. CS – your car UCS- your arrival Opposite from generalization stimulus Higher – order Conditioning A conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus Operant Conditioning Responses come to be controlled by their consequences Another name for operant conditioning is instrumental learning Thorndikes Law of Effect Law of effect – if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened Skinners demonstrations Created the Air Crib for his daughter to assist in raising her Used his work on conditioning to help in WW2 Reinforcement – when an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that response Example: you put money in vending machine and get a pop in return Terminology and Procedures Operant chamber/ skinner box – small enclosure where animals can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled example: the box made rats had a lever on the inside. Reinforcement contingencies – the rules that determine whether responses lead to presentation of reinforcers Example: the rat pushes the lever food comes out Cu
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