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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 – The Research Enterprise in Psychology.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Xueda Song

Chapter 2 – The Research Enterprise in Psychology Behaviour:  anything that can be observed o OVERT: observable and measurable behaviour o COVERT: cannot be observed directly – thoughts, wishes, and feelings  Inferred by overt behaviour Scope of Psych  brain processes  genes vs environment  parenting styles  causes of mental illness  drug effects  effect of environment on well being  how we learn and remember Difference between Clinical and Counsel Psychologists  Clinical: same as counsel but also treat more serious issues such as depression or schizophrenia o Assessment, treatment, teaching, research o Psych labs at york treat depression, emotions disorders, mental and physical illnesses  Counsel: minor issues that are easily treatable (minor problems) Psychologists vs. Psychiatrists 1. Education  Psychiatrists go to med school vs grad school for psychologists 2. Training in research methods 3. Prescriptions  Psychiatrists can prescribe drugs and use medical treatments (ex. Shock treatment), not psychologists Goals of Psychological Research  Describe behaviour (what happened)  Undertstand and explain behaviour (why)  Predict behaviour (what will happen)  Influence/control behaviour Contemporary Theoretical Perspectives in Psych –pg 12 fig 1.1 Behavioural - Watson:  study OVERT behaviours  controlled by the environment Psychoanalytic:  role of unconscious processes  things going on not in your control that change your behaviour  opposite of behavioural Humanistic – Rogers, Maslow:  humans are not subject to predetermined futures, we can change ourselves  optimistic view  humans have a drive to reach potential  protest against the last two Cognitive  structuralism – Wundt in Leipzig o identify basic components or structures and interrelations between them o Titchener – introspection – self-report, biased towards studying others  Functionalism – James o Function/purpose of consciousness  Gesalt Psychology o “whole is greater than sum of parts” o Wetheimer, Koffka, Kohler Biological  biology/chem of human body and how psychological processes function in the body  Nature/Nurture controversy o “Nature” – pre-determined/genetic o “Nurture” – external and environmental influences  twin studies – study given behaviour between identical and fraternal twins, see if the behaviour is dominant in both sets  adoption studies Scientific Method The Scientific Process:  Understanding Research Method o Are important for critical thinking o Are necessary to be a sophisticated consumer of products based on psychological information that is in our daily lives o General strategies used for conducting scientific studies Scientific Investigation: 1) Formulate a hypothesis  A tentative (uncertain, provisional, experimental) statement about the relationship between two or more variables  Based on previous research, casual observations,
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