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Chapter

The Evolution of Psychology.docx

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Jennifer Steeves

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Psychology Chapter 1 The Evolution of Psychology From Speculations to Science: How Psychology Developed  Philosophy, Physiology, and Psychology o Psychology comes from “psyche‟= soul and “logos” = subject of study o Ancient Greek Philosophers:  Socrates  Plato  Aristotle: theory of memory  Memories are the result of three principles of associations; similarity, contrast and contiguity  Separation of the mind and body  Knowledge is inborn (nativism) or gained through experience (empiricism) o Classic philosophy developed through  Renaissance (Rene Descartes)  Dualism of the mind and body  Mind and body were separate and fundamentally different  Soul being immaterial „province of God”  Memory, perception, dreaming and emotions were “properties” of the body (naturalistic terms)  Post-Renaissance (Thomas Hobbes and John Locke)  Associationism (David Hume and John Stuart Mill) o William Harvey  Blood circulation was a function of the operation of the heart o Robert Whyte, Franz Gall, Paul Broca and Johannes Muller  Workings of the body and brain through applications of systemic, empirical methods  Muller‟s Student: Herman Von Helm Holtz began one of the first experimental examinations of human reaction time  Separation of the sensation and perception as topics of study  A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall o Wilhelm Wundt  Psychology a independent discipline  1879: first psychology laboratory = date of birth for psychology  According to him, psychology‟s primary focus was consciousness- awareness of immediate experience  Psychology = scientific study of the conscious experience  1883-1893 = new spur of laboratories o G. Stanely Hall (studies with Wundt)  Responsible for rapid growth in US  1883 first US psychology laboratory  The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism o Structuralism  Emerged through Edward Titchener  Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into the basic elements and investigate how these elements are related 1 Psychology Chapter 1  Such as: sensations, feelings, and images  Depended on a method: introspection  The careful, systematic, self-observation of one‟s own conscious experience  Training required in order to be more objective  LIMITATIONS: if you dependent solely one one‟s reflection to document a phenomenon, there is no independent objection evaluation of that claim o Functionalism  Based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure  William James  Impressed with Charles‟ Darwin natural selection theory o Natural Selection: heritable characteristic that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and this come to be “selected” over time  He intended that psychology should investigate the FUNCTIONS rather than the structure of consciousness  Consciousness is continual flow of thoughts o Stream of consciousness  Structuralisms: looking at static points  James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey  Mental testing, patters of development in children and the effectiveness of educational practices, and behavioral differences between the sexes  Margarent Floy Washburn  First women to receive PhD in psychology  Leta Hollingoworth  Important work in children‟s intelligence and explain why woman were “inferior” to men  Mary Whiton Calkins  Studied William James  First woman president of American Psychological Association o Most historians give the edge to functionalism  Separated into: Behaviourism and applied psychology  Watson Alters Psychology‟s Course as Behaviourism Makes Its Debut o John B. Watson: Behaviourism  Is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour  RADIAL CHANGE from looking at consciousness to focus exclusively on behaviorus that they could observe directly  REDEFINED what scientific psychology should be about  Why the change?  He believed that power of the scientific method rested on the idea of verifiability  Mental processes were not a proper subject for scientific study because they are ultimately private events  No one can see or touch another‟s thoughts 2 Psychology Chapter 1  Behaviour refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism  Nature vs. Nurture  Watson argued that each is MADE not born  Stimulus is any detectable input from the environment  Because the behaviorists investigated stimulus-response relationships, the behavioural approach is often referred to as stimulus-response (S-R) psychology  Became the first “pop‟ psychologist o Ivan Pavlov  Showed that dogs could be trained to salivate in response to auditory stimulus  Showed how stimulus-response bonds are formed o Watsons theories were challenged by Gestalt (emerging school of thought)  Gestalt theories: primarily concerned with perception  Psychology should continue to study conscious experience rather than overt behaviour  Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture o Sigmund Freud  Mysteries of unconscious mental processes  Watched field process from the sidelines  Most controversial intellectual figures of modern times  His efforts to treat mental disorders  Treated with psychoanalysis  Unconscious contains thoughts, memories and desired that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour  Meaningless slips of the tongue revealed a person‟s true feelings  Patient‟s dreams often seemed to express important feelings they were unaware of  CONCLUDED: psychological disturbances are largely caused by personal conflicts existing at a unconscious level  Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour  Behaviour is greatly influenced by how people cope with their
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