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PSYC 1010 (6)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9- Intelligence + Psychological Testing.docx

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PSYC 1010
Gerald Goldberg

Chapter 9- Intelligence and Psychological Testing Psychological test- standardized measure of a sample of person’s behavior (used to measure individual differences) - 2 broad categories (mental ability, personality tests) Intelligence test- measure general mental ability Mental ability tests Intelligence tests- measures general ability - Assess intellectual potential rather than previous learning or accumulated knowledge Aptitude tests- assess specific types of mental ability - Designed to measure potential more than knowledge, but they break mental ability into separate components Achievement tests- gauge a person’s mastery + knowledge of various subjects Personality tests- measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, attitudes - Personality scales + not right/wrong answers Standardization- uniform procedures used in administration + scoring of test Test norms- information about where a score on psychological test ranks in relation to their scores on a test Percentile score- percentage of ppl who scores at or below the score one has obtained Standardization group- sample of ppl that the norms are based on Reliability- measurement consistency of a test (or other kinds of measurement techniques) - Psychological tests are not perfectly reliable (requires computation of correlation coefficient) - Test-retest reliability- estimated by comparing subjects’scores on two administrations of a test - Take test on 2 occasions which is few weeks apart Correlation coefficient- numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables - Magnitude of correlation gives us a precise indication of test’s consistency (closer the correlation 1.00, test’s reliable) - Most psychological tests are above 0.70, many exceeding 0.90 - Higher the reliability coefficient, the more consistent the test is Validity- ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure Content validity- degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it’s supposed to cover - Evaluated w/logic more than w/ statistics Criterion-related validity - estimated by correlating subject’s scores on a test w/their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test- no obvious criterion exists (hypothetical constructs- abstract quantities) Construct validity- evidence that a test measure a particular hypothetical construct - requires series of studies that examine the correlations btw the test + various measures related to the trait in question Galton- intelligence is passed from generation to generation thru genetic inheritance - contents of mind are build out of elementary sensations - invented “nature vs. nurture”, correlation, percentile test scores Mental age- mental ability typical of a child of the chronological (actual) age Intelligence quotient (IQ)- child’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 - ratio of mental age to chronological age made it possible to compare children of different age - stanford-binet test quickly became world’s foremost intelligence test + standard of comparison for virtually all intelligence test that followed WechslerAdult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)- first quality IQ test designed specifically for adults - less independent on subject’s verbal ability than Stanford-Binet - included many items that required nonverbal reasoning - Had separate scores for verbal IQ performance (nonverbal) + full scale (total) IQ - Discarded IQ and used normal distribution (scoring scheme) - Scores on intelligence test are no longer based on actual quotient Factor analysis- correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables Spearman concluded that all cognitive abilities share an important core factor (called it “g” for general mental ability Thurstone- developed primary mental abilities (7 independent intelligence) - Word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory Guilford- divided intelligence into 150 separate abilities (w/o “g”) Fluid intelligence- reasoning ability, memory capacity, + speed of information processing Crystalized intelligence- ability to apply acquired knowledge + skills in problem solving - Two combined helped break “g” into basic components - Contemporary IQ tests are based on hierarchical model of intelligence (subdivided g into 10-15 specific abilities) Normal distribution - Symmetric, bell shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed into population Deviation IQ scores- locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using SD as unit of measurement - Most IQ tests- mean of distribution is set at 100 + SD at 15 - Modern IQ scores indicate exactly where you fall in the normal distribution of intelligence - Deviation IQ scores can be converted into percentile scores - Specific score on specific test always translates into exactly the same percentile score, regardless of person’s age group Intelligence test was first designed to predict school performance (only positive correlation of 40-50s) - Self-discipline are strong predictors of student’s school performance (also subjective perceptions of their abilities) Intelligence behavior - Verbal intelligence- IQ assess only this one (at least it’s the focus) - Practical intelligence - Social intelligence Intelligence test do not predict rational thinking + effective decision making in real world nearly as well as we expect - Routine for ppl w/high intelligence to make irrational, ill-advised decisions - IQ tests do not assess ability to think critically, weigh conflicting evidence, + engage in judicious reasoning IQ scores- relatively unstable during preschool years + are not good predictors of scores in adolescence + adulthood - As children grow older, IQ scores stabilize - Around age 7-10, IQ tests become fairly accurate predictors of IQ at age 18 - Tend to be stable by 9, changes are seen in minority Retardation, intellectual disability- subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills (conceptual skills, social skills, practical skills) originating before age 18 - Starting from IQ of 70 (# of ppl double for special ed programs if IQ was 75) - Deficit in everyday living skills is required b/c it shouldn’t be based on one test score - Vast majority of ppl fall in mild category (not all easily distinguished from rest of population) - About 15% of intellectual disability exhibit obvious mental deficiencies that most people envision - Many as 2/3 manages to shed the label of intellectual disability when they reach adulthood and leave schools Many organic conditions can cause intellectual disability - Down syndrome associated with mild to severe intellectual disability - Fragil X syndrome (FXS)- hereditary intellectual disability (mutation in inherited genes) - May lead to activation of neural connections irrelevant to the context or task facing the individual - Phyenyleketonuria- metabolic disorder (enzyme deficiency)- leads to disability if not caught and treated - Hydrocephaly- excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in skull destroys brain tissues and causes retardation Mild disability come from lower socioeconomic classes Giftedness shouldn’t be equated w/high intelligence + they recommend that school not rely heavily on IQ to select gifted - Upper 2-3 percent of IQ distribution as gifted (minimum IQ 130 for gifted program) - Gifted children have long been sterotyped as weak, sickly, socially inept “bookworms”, emotionally troubled - Moderately gifted- 130-150 - Profoundly gifted- above 180 (often introverted + socially isolated) Majority of children selected for gifted school program don’t achieve eminence as adults or make genius like contributions to society - Hidden gifted students aren’t afforded the opportunities offered by educational programs designed to help gifted students meet t
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