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Psyc mid 2.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

MODULE 4NEURAL AND HORMONAL SYSTEMS Biological PsychologyBranch of psych concerned with links between biology and behavior behavioroscientists neuropsychologists behavior geneticists physiological psychologists biopsychologists SynapseJunction between axon tip of sending neuron and dendrite or cell body of receiving neurontiny gap is called synaptic cleft Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine AchMessenger at every junction between motor neuron and skeletal muscleWhen released to our muscle cell receptors muscle contractsIf Ach blocked muscles cant contractparalyzed Opiate ReceptorsEndorphins similar to morphine in response to pain and vigorous exercise o Ie Runner high painkilling effects of acupunctureAgonistsmimic effects or block NT reuptakeAntagonistsblock NT functioning o Ie Botulin poison found in improperly canned food causes paralysis by blocking ACH release botox o Ie PoisonCurare hunting dart tipsoccupies and blocks ACH receptor sites NT unable to affect muscles paralysation Endocrine SystemGlands secrete hormones that go to bloodstream and affect other tissuesinfluence our interest in sex food and aggressionEndocrine messages travel slower than nervous system messages minutes vs millisecondsANS tells ADRENAL GLANDS on top of kidneys to release epinephrine and norepinephrine adrenaline and noradrenalineincrease heart rate BP and blood sugarsurge of energyPituitary gland pea sized in core of brain controlled by hypothalamus o GH sex hormonesFeedback Brainpituitary glandother glandshormonesbrain MODULE 5TOOLS OF DISCOVERY AND OLDER BRAIN STRUCTURES Damage to one side of brain paralyzes opposite side of bodyDamage to back of brain disrupted visionDamage on left front part of brain produced speech difficultyCartographersable to selectively lesion destroy tiny clusters of normal or defective brain cells leaving surrounding tissue unharmed Electroencephalogram EEGAmplified recording of waves of electrical activity that sweep across brains surfaceWaves measured by electrodes placed on scalp PET positron emission tomography scanDepict brain activity by showing each brain areas consumption of its chemical fuel sugar glucoseShow hot spots of the brain MRI Magnetic resonance imagingHead is put in strong magnetic field which aligns spinning atoms of brain moleculesRadio wave pulse disorients atomsWhen atoms return to normal spin release signals that show a picture of brain soft tissuesMRI detects blood rushing to wherever active areas are BrainstemOldest part and central core of brain beginning where spinal cord swells as it enters the skull the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions MedullaBase of brainstem controls heartbeat and breathing Ponshelps coordinate movements Reticular formationNerves network in brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousalSevere reticular formation from higher brain regionscoma ThalamusActs as brains sensory switchboardReceives info from all senses except smell and routes it to the higher brain regions that deal with seeing hearing tasting and touching CerebellumOne type of nonverbal learning and memoryJudge time modulate emotions discriminate sounds and textures
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