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Modules 20-22.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Psychology - Module 20-22 Learning - Nature’s most important gift to us adaptability: our capacity to learn new behaviour that help us cope with changing circumstances - What is learnable we can potentially teach ex. Parents, coaches… - Learning: the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviours o By learning humans adapt to our environments o Learn to expect and prepare for significant events –classical conditioning o Learn to repeat acts that bring rewards and avoid acts that bring unwanted results – operant conditioning o New behaviours by observing events by watching others – cognitive learning o We learn by association o Learned associations also feed our habitual behaviours (behaviours become associative with the context - Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together, the events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning) or a response and its consequence (operant conditioning) o Linking two events that occur close together (animals exhibit) o Process of learning associations is conditioning 2 main forms  Classical conditioning  Stimulus: any event or situation that evokes a response  Operant conditioning - Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language o Observational learning – learn from others experiences Ivan Pavlov – Classical Conditioning - Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events - Watson – Behaviourism: the view that psychology 1. Should be an objective science 2. Studies behaviour without reference to mental processes ( researchers today agree with one not two) - Respondent learning: behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some stimuli o dog drooling for anticipated food - neutral stimuli: in classical conditioning a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning o events a dog could see or hear however did not associate with food o this is when Pavlov sounded a bell when the food would approach - unconditioned response: an unlearned naturally occurring response (salvation) to a unconditioned stimulus (food) - unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that unconditionally (naturally) and automatically triggers a response (UR) – food - conditioned response: a learned response to a previously neutral (but not conditioned) stimulus o dog’s associating the bell and the food - conditioned stimulus: an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response o bell 5 Major Conditioning Processes Acquisition: in classical conditioning the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response – in operant conditioning the strengthening of a reinforced response - REMEMBER: classical conditioning is biologically adaptive because it helps humans and other animals prepare for good or bad events - Conditioning helps an animal survive and reproduce – by responding to cues that help it gain foods, avoid dangers, locate mates and produce offspring - Higher-order conditioning: procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus o Ex. If the dog learned that the tone predicts the food then he my learn that the light predicts the tone which predicts the food and begins to respond to the light alone Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus doesn’t follow a conditioned stimulus – occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced - this suggested to Pavlov that the extinction merely suppressed the CR rather than eliminate Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance after the pause of the extinguished conditioned response - It is weaker than what the response was prier Generalization: the tendency to respond likewise to stimuli similar to the CS - Can be adaptive o Ex. When toddlers taught to become afraid of moving cars also become afraid of moving trucks/motorcycles etc. o Generalized fears can linger - We like unfamiliar people more if they look somewhat like someone we’ve learned to like rather than one we dislike Discrimination: in classical conditioning the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and the stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus - Learn to respond to a particular tone and NOT other tones, - Being able to recognize differences is adaptive Operant Conditioning - Operant conditioning: type of learning in which behaviour is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher o Organisms associate their OWN actions with consequences, actions followed by reinforcers increase those followed by punishers often decrease o Behaviour that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli is called operant conditioning B.F Skinner - law of effect: Thorndike’s principle- that behaviours followed by favourable consequences become more likely, ad that behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likely - skinner developed a behavioural technology that revealed principles of behaviour control - operant chamber: in operant conditioning research- a chamber (skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer- attached devices record the animals rate or bar pressing o key pecking - reinforcement: any event that strengthens the behaviour that follows - shaping: procedure in which reinforcers guide behaviour toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour o builds on existing behaviours o successive approximations: - you reward responses that are ever closer to the final desired behaviour – ignore all other behaviours - positive reinforcement: increasing behaviours by presenting positive reinforcers a positive reinforcer is any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response o adding – typically pleasurable stimulus - Negative reinforcement: increasing behaviours by stopping or reducin
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