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Psychology in Modules: Modules 7-10.docx

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Modules 7-10 Page 1 Module 7 Brain States and Consciousness  After 1960, neuroscience related brain activity to sleeping, dreaming & other mental states  Studied consciousness altered by hypnosis and drugs  Consciousness - or awareness of ourselves and our environment. Allowing us to assemble info from sources as we reflect on the past and plan for future. Various states of consciousness  Today, biology figures that consciousness offers a reproductive advantage  States that occur spontaneously: daydreaming, drowsiness & dreaming  Some that are physiologically induced: hallucinations, orgasms, food/oxygen starvation  Some that are psychologically induced: sensory deprivation, hypnosis, meditation Biology of Consciousness: Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience - the inter-disciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory & language) Ex. A lady in a car accident showing no signs of outward consciousness, was asked to imagine playing tennis, her mind remained active. Cognitive neuroscientists mapping conscious functions of the cortex. If a stimulus activates enough brain activity with strong signals in one area triggering activity elsewhere, it crosses a threshold for consciousness. A weaker stimulus may trigger localised visual cortex activity that quickly dies out. A stronger stimulus will engage brain areas such as language, attention & memory. Dual Processing: The Two-Track Mind  A particular brain region becomes active with a particular conscious experience meaning everything psychological is also biological...ideas, emotions & spirituality must be embodied  Perception, memory, thinking, language and attitudes operate on 2 levels : a conscious deliberate high road and an unconscious automatic low road. >>>  >Dual Processing - the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks  Blind Sight - a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it  We may think of our vision as on system controlling our visually guided actions, but a visual perception tracks enables us to "think about the world" to recognize things and plan future actions. A visual action track guides our moment-to-moment movements. The hollow face illusion, people will mistakenly perceive the inside of a mask as a protruding face. What their conscious mind doesn't know, their hand does.  When you move a body part, you consciously experience the decision to move it 0.2 seconds before the actual movement happens. But brain waves jump 0.35 seconds before you consciously perceive your decision to move....Consciousness sometimes arrives late to the decision-making party Modules 7-10 Page 2  In everyday life, we mostly function like an automatic camera, but with a manual (conscious) override  Our unconscious parallel processing is faster than sequential processing. SP is skilled at solving new problems which require our focused attention Selective Attention - the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Selective Attention & Accidents  When focusing on a task, people blink less  Also people are 4 times more at risk talking on a cell phone when driving even hands-free Selective Inattention Inattentional Blindness - failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere. An experiment watching basketball players pass the ball between white & black shirted players, when viewers did not notice a women walking across the screen with an umbrella. Conducted by Ulric Neisser, Robert Becklen & Daniel Cervone. Change Blindness - failing to notice changes in the environment. Choice blindness also happens. Modules 7-10 Page 3 Module 8 Sleep and Dreams Biological Rhythms of Sleep  Circadian Rhythm - the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (ex. temperature & wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle  Thinking is sharpest & memory most accurate when we are at our daily peak in circadian arousal ex. Pulling an all-nighter may make you feel groggy in the night but have sudden energy when your normal wake up time arrives  Most 20-year olds are evening energized while older adults are morning people. Women become more morning orientated earlier on.  Morning people tend to do better in school, take more initiative & be less vulnerable to depression Four Stages of Sleep  Awake: low-voltage/high frequency beta waves  Drowsy: Alpha waves prominent  NREM-1 - Hypnagogic State: Theta waves prominent, Light Sleep, Hypnotic jerks (lie on back, elbows upright), nightmares. May later be present in your memories. Nearly awake.  NREM-2 - Sleep spindles prominent - bursts of rapid rhythmic brain-wave activity  NREM-3 - Slow Wave Sleep: Delta waves prominent, hard to awaken, near the end of this state children may wet the bed  4 - Slow Wave Sleep: Deepest sleep, more delta waves, sleep walking, night terrors, occurs within first 3 hours of the night  REM - Rapid Eye Movement, dreaming, low voltage/high frequency waves, motor activity is eliminated, difficult to awaken person, breathing is choppy, EEG pattern resembles that of someone who is awake. Genitals become arouses except during nightmares. Where men's morning erection comes from. A typical 25-year old man, has an erection for more than half his night's sleep. Apart from twitches, you are essentially paralyzed. The brain's cortex is active but brainstem blocks its messages. Paradoxical sleep  Lucid - when you are dreaming but are consciously aware that you are dreaming; are able to influence/control the dream story  Parasomnia - any atypical sleep behaviour (eating in sleep, sleep talking,sleep walking)  Sexsomnia - having sex while sleeping  New REM period every 90 minutes. Longest right before you wake up.  Order we travel through 4 stages: REM, NREM1, NREM2, NREM3 then back through NREM2 before experiencing REM sleep. Time spent in each sleep stage:  Stage 1 - 5%  Stage 2 - 50% Modules 7-10 Page 4  Stage 3 - 6%  Stage 4 - 14%  REM sleep - 25% REM Sleep - rapid eye movement sleep; a reoccurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. The muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active. Alpha Waves - the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state. Sleep - periodic, natural, easily reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation Hallucinations - false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus Delta Waves - the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep What Affects Sleep Patterns  Genetically influenced  Sleep patterns culturally influenced (in NA many workers/students fall short of the average 7/8 hours) Our Siestas  Bright morning light tweaks the circadian clock by activating light-sensitive retinal proteins triggering signal's to the brain's suprachiasmatic nucleus. A pair of rice sized 10,000 cell clusters in the hypothalamus.  The SNC causes the brain's pineal gland to decrease production of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin in the morning and to increase in the evening  Artificial light delays sleep, most of us will exceed a 24-hour day Modules 7-10 Page 5 Sleep Theories 1. Sleep serves a restorative function Stage 4 sleep the most important here a. Slow-wave sleep implicated in restorative process; more time spent in slow-wave sleep after sleep deprivation b. Growth hormones released during slow-wave sleep. After sleep deprivation or excessive exercise, growth hormone increase 2. Sleep helps cognitive functioning 3. Sleep helps to consolidate memories 4. Sleep is viewed as part of a circadian rhythm that developed through evolution and protects us a. When circadian rhythm and sleep is not synchronized, problems can occur Ultradian rhythms: 90-minute rest/activity cycles; it is believed that REM sleep is controlled by ultradian rhythms - there are ideal times during the day at which to take a nap → people usually feel sleepy and have a need to nap during the rest cycle of the ultradian rhythm Sleep Deprivation & Sleep Disorders - type of sleep deprivation is important to determine its effects 1. Complete Deprivation - individual doesn’t sleep for a prolonged period of time - performance on many tasks does not deteriorate as expected - tasks that are affected by complete deprivation are those involving attention/motivation, particularly for repetitive tasks 2. Partial Deprivation (sleep restriction) - Individual is sleeping but not the amount that is needed, particularly if sleeping 5 hours or less - This type of sleep deprivation is responsible for more negative effects - responsible for inefficiency at work & accidents 3. Selective Sleep Deprivation - only one stage of sleep is deprived (e.g., in a lab, if one is waken up each time s/he enters REM sleep) REM rebound: if deprived of REM sleep, will go into REM sleep much more quickly than typical, and will stay in that stage longer than typical Stage 3/4 rebound also occurs, and takes precedence over REM sleep - sleep deprivation makes us more prone to obesity and other diseases; likely b/c it suppresses our immune system - people who are chronically sleep-deprived have shorter life spans Insomnia - recurring problems in falling or staying asleep. Insomnia complainers do sleep less than others & underestimate by half of how long they have actually slept. Sleeping pills and alcohol crate tolerance not a solution. Modules 7-10 Page 6 Narcolepsy - a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times. Sleep Apnea - a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings. Deprived of SWS and can be snorers. Night Terrors - a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within 2/3 hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered. Common in children. Dream - a sequence of images, emotions & thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their h
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