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Psychology in Modules: Module 40.docx

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Module 40 Page 1 Module 40 Psychodynamic Theories  View human behaviour as a dynamic interaction between the conscious and the unconscious mind, including associated motives and conflicts. (Freud) Personality - a person's pattern of thinking, feeling and acting Freud's Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploring the Unconscious  University of Vienna 1873  After medical school, he set up a private practice specializing in nervous disorders  Might some neurological disorders have psychological causes?  Died in 1939 Free Association - in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. Freud believed this would follow a chain of thought leading into the person's unconscious, where painful memories (often from childhood) could be retrieved and released. Psychoanalysis - Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions. Unconscious - according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts. wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing and which we are unaware.  Some of these thoughts we store temporarily in our preconscious which we can retrieve them into our conscious awareness.  Freud interested in the mass of unacceptable passions and thoughts he believed we repressed because they are too unsettling to acknowledge.  Without being aware these troublesome feelings influence us taking place in the work we choose, beliefs we hold, daily habits and troubling symptoms.  Freud viewed jokes as expressions of repressed sexual and aggressive tendencies.  The remembered content of dreams (their manifest content), he believed to be a censored expression of the dreamer's unconscious wishes (the dream's latent content). Personality Structure Human personality arises from a conflict between impulse and restraint - between our aggressive pleasure-seeking biological urges and our internalized social control over these Module 40 Page 2 urges. To understand the mind's dynamic during this conflict, Freud proposed 3 interacting systems: id, ego, superego. id - a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principal demanding immediate gratification. Ex. an infant crying out for satisfaction or people who think of a present rather than future time perspective - they would sooner party now than sacrifice today's pleasure for future success and happiness. ego - the largely conscious "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. Contains partly conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgments and memories. Struggles to reconcile the opposing forces of the id and superego. superego - the part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. Those with a strong superego may be virtuous yet guilt-ridden, while another with a weak superego may be self-indulgent and remorseless. Personality Development Personality forms during life's first few years. Children pass through a series of psychosexual stages, where the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body called erogenous zones. During the Phallic stage, boys develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother and jealousy/hatred for their father - called the Oedipus Complex after the Greek legend of Oedipus who killed his father and married his mother. Some psychoanalysis's of Freud's era believed girls experience a parallel Electra Complex. Identification - the process by which children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos. Identification with the same-sex parent provides our gender identity Module 40 Page 3 (sense of being male/female). Fixation - a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved. Defense Mechanisms  In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. They are tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality. All defense mechanisms function indirectly and unconsciously. The ego unconsciously defends itself against anxiety. Repression - In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories. Repression underlies all the other defense mechanisms. Defense Mechanism Unconscious process Example employed to avoid anxiety- arousing thoughts/feelings Regression Retreating to a more infantile Little boy reverts to oral psychosexual stage, where comfort of thumb sucking o
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