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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 STIs.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
William Fisher
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 8 STI’s STI’s Introduction - STI’s affect an individual’s physical and psychological sexual health - STI is more encompassing because it includes infections for which people have symptoms as well as those for which they have no symptoms (asymptomatic) - Some ways to combat these STIs is to re-write our sexual script and inform ourselves - There has been an increase in the incidence of newly acquired STIs in Canada - STIs mostly affect teens and young adults aged 15-24 - For the younger people: HPV, Trichomoniasis, and Chlamydia account for the great majority (only Chlamydia is reportable) - 60 million of the people who were infected with HIV: ½ of them became infected between the ages of 15 and 24 - STI-related stigma: awareness that people are judged negatively for contracting and STI - STI-related shame: The negative feelings people have about themselves as a result of receiving an STI diagnosis - People who are more socially and sexually conservative (old-school) experience greater STI- related stigma and shame - Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) frequently used in this chapter - Only some but not all STIs must be reported. Thus, there are no national data on some of the most common STIs such as genital herpes and HPV - Bacteria STIs: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis (cured by antibiotics) - Viral STIs: Herpes, HIV/AIDS, HPV, and Hepatitis B (cannot be cured but can be treated to reduce symptoms) Chlamydia - Bacterium that is spread by sexual contact and infects genital organs of both males and females - Most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Canada - Most common STI that is reported in Canada - Rate of Chlamydia has been rising - Adolescent girls have a particularly high rate of infection, more than 5 times the national rate - When a man has urinal discharge he has more chances of having Chlamydia than gonorrhea Symptoms: - Thin, clear discharge and mild discomfort of urination appearing 7-21 days after infection - Similar to the gonorrhea symptoms in men: gonorrhea has more painful urination and more pus-like discharge - Urine sample from men and women (cervical cells) to diagnose - 75% of the Chlamydia cases in women are asymptomatic - 50% of the Chlamydia cases in men are asymptomatic Treatment: - Chlamydia is curable with the antibiotics: azithromycin or any other tetracycline - Chlamydia does NOT respond to penicillin - Untreated cases: urethral damage, epididymitis, Reiter’s syndrome, and proctitis in men who have had anal intercourse - Women may experience: pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and possible infertility due to scarring of the fallopian tubes. Baby born to a woman with Chlamydia may develop an eye infection or even pneumonia. Prevention: - One of the most effective tools for prevention is screening - The health agency recommends routine testing by the family doctor of all women who are sexually active under the age of 25 - However, research in Ontario indicates that only a minority of physicians do any sex health assessment and that physicians infrequently suggest Chlamydia testing - Far fewe
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