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Chapter 2

PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Naturalistic Observation, Mind Control, Social Desirability Bias

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Agnieszka Kopinska

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The Research Enterprise in Psychology
Psychology is empirical which makes it a scientific endeavour
Goals of Scientific Enterprise
1. Measurement and description
Investigator figures out a way to measure the phenomenon under study
2. Understanding the Prediction
Understanding occurs when you can explain the reasons for the
occurence of events→ must use a hypothesis; tentative statement
about the relationship between 2 or more variables
variables→ measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or
behaviours that are controlled or observed in a study
3. Application and Control
Practical value to results
Build a theory and create a description to the understanding of
A scientific theory must be testable
Steps in a Scientific Investigation
1. Testable Hypothesis
Translate a theory into a hypothesis
Variables must be clearly defines with operational definitions→
describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or
control a variable
2. Select a Research Method and Design the Study
Empirical test
Methods: experiments, case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation
Participants are chosen
3. Collect the Data
Data collection techniques are procedures for making observations
4. Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions
Find correlations
5. Report the Findings
A journal publishes the material
Advantages of Scientific Approach
Clear and Precise
Intolerance of error
Experimental Research
experiment→ research method where investigator manipulates a variable
under carefully controlled conditions and observed if any changes occur in a
second variable
Independent and dependent variables
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