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Chapter 11

Chapter 11Human Development Accross the LifeSpan.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Gerry Goldberg

Human Development across the Life Span Chapter 11 Notes Development: is the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death Progress before Birth: Prenatal Development - Development begins with conception The prenatal period: extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy - In the final weeks before birth, the frenzied pace of prenatal development slows down - Prenatal period is divided into 3 phases: -The germinal stage is the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception - Begins when a zygote is created through fertilization - Azygote is a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg, lasting from conception to 2 weeks - Within 36 hours, zygote becomes a mass of cells that migrate to the fallopian tube to the uterine cavity until the 7 day where the mass begins to implant itself in the uterine wall - The placenta is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream, and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother The embryonic stage - is the second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 weeks until the end of the 2 nd month - Vital organs & bodily systems begin to form - Now called an embryo, 2.5 cm long from - Heart, spine, & brain emerge, arms, legs, hands, fingers, toes are discernable - Period of great vulnerability; most miscarriages occur in this stage The fetal stage - is the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months through birth 1 2 months of fetal stage bring rapid growth, muscles & bones begin to form - now called a fetus, capable of physical movement - sex organs start to develop - layer of fat is deposited under the skin to provide insulation & repiratory & digestive systems mature - b/w 22 & 26 weeks the fetus reaches an age of viability, the age at which a baby can survive in the event of premature birth - Environmental Factors and Parental Development Events in the external envviroment can directly affect the fetus indirectly through the mother Mom and the fetus are connected through the placenta which causes mothers eating habbits, drug abuse, and physical health can affect the prenatal development of the fetus and have long term health consequences. Maternal Drug Use Most drugs consumed by a pregnant woman can pass thru the membranes of the placenta; Nicotine during the prenatal period is correlated with low birth weight o Babies of heroin users are born addicted to narcotics leading to an increased risk of early death to prematurity, birth defects, etc. o Prenatal pot use is linked to disturbances in executive functioning in the prefrontal part of the brain o All “recreational drugs” can be harmful; sediatives, narcotics, & cocaine being particularly dangerous. o Fetal alcohol syndrome is a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy  Typical problems include microcephaly (small head), heart defects, irritablility & delayed motor & mental development Maternal Illness and Exposure to Toxins • Fetus is defenceless against infections b/c its immune system matures late in the prenatal period. • Placenta screens out # of infection agents, but not all. • AIDs and genital herpes can be passed down to the fetus causing defects in the baby - Herpes is transmitted when newborns come into contact with the mother’s genital lesions - Transmission ofAIDS may occur prenatally thru the - placenta/breastfeeding • 20-30% of women withAIDS pass the disease to their children • exclusive breastfeeding may be maintained up to six months, at which point the infant can be introduced to nutrient-rich, solid foods. • Maternal Nutrition and Emotions • Maternal malnutrition increases newborns risk for birth complications and neurological deficits • Maternal emotions can also affect prenatal development: example: anxiety and depression can lead to behavioral problems with the baby. The Wondrous Years of Childhood Exploreing the World: Motor Development Motor development: refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities - Sequence of motor development is universal but the rate of the various stages varies -Basic motor skills include grasping, & reaching for objects, manipulating objects, sitting up, crawling, walking & running Basic Principals -Anumber of principles are apparent in motor developement - Motor development follows cephalocudal and proximodistal tends Cephalocudal Trend: is the head-to-foot direction of motor development - Children tend to gain control over the upper part of their body before the lower part; children shift from using their arms to using their legs Proximodistal Trends: Centre-outward direction of motor development -Children gain control over their torso before their extremities; so they use their body to reach things initially but then learn to extend their arms. -Early motor development depends on both maturation and learning Maturation: is development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint; so it’s the product getting mature psycialcally with age instead of experience and learning. Example: getting taller • But the force behind motor development is because of the infant’s ongoing exploration of their world & their need to master specific tasks & the consequences of their activities; i.e by learning Understanding Developmental Norms Developmental Norms: indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities -Parents tend to compare their children to these developmental norms; if the child for example isn’t doing what it says in the developmental norms, such as the infant should be able to crawl, the parents being to worry but really … -…variations from typical ages of accomplishment are normal Culture Variations and Their Significance - Cross-Cultural research on motor development shows that maturation and environmental are both influential. - Rapid motor development has been observed in some cultures that provide special practice in motor skills & slow motor development in cultures that discourage motor exploration. Example: in onecountry the parents make their infants to walk and stand earlier . In contrast in a different country parents make their kids learn to walk and stand later because for their safety in the forest. - Therefore cultural variations in the emergence of basic motor skills demonstrate that environmental factors can accelerate/slow early motor development - Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament -Infants show variability in Temperament Temperament: refers to characteristic mood, activity level and emotional reactivity -from the very beginning some babies might be cheerful while others might be sluggish - Infants show consistent differences in emotional tone, tempo of activity, and sensitivity to environmental stimuli early in life -Temperamental differences among children are apparent during the first few months of life -Most infants can be easy, slow-to-warm-up, or difficult children • Three styles of temperament: 40 % Easy children 15% Slow-to-warm-up 10% Difficult children 35% Mixture of these three • Temperament at 3 Mo. fair predictor at age 10 years -Temperament can be studies using Longitudinal Design and Cross-sectional design. • In a longitudinal design: investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time( Institute followed individuals from birth to death) • In a cross-sectional design: investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time (page. 499 diagram 11.5) -Cross sectional studies can be completed more quickly, easily & cheaply then longitudal studies that can extend over many years -However, in cross-sectional studies, changes that appear to reflect development may really be cohort effects. Cohort Effects: occur when differences btw ages groups are due to the groups growing p in different times. Example: if you used cross-sectional method to examine gender roles in groups of age 20 40 and 60 years, you would be comparing people who grew up before, during and after the women’s movement, which would then lead to major differences. -But longitudal designs tend to be more sensitive and remain stable as children grow up Early Emotional Development: Attachment Attachment: refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants & their caregivers • Focus on infant and caregiver • Not instantaneous but in stages Separation anxiety: emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment • starts about 6-8 Months and peaks at 14-18 Months Theories of Attachment Behaviorists argue that the attachment b/w infant & mother develops b/c mothers are associated with the reinforcing events of being fed, however, Harry Harlow had something else in mind. Harry Harlow: tested monkeys; two mothers, one was made of cloth and the other was made of wire, the monkey went to the cloth mother, they chose comfort over food. Therefore, showing that attachment is not caused because of food. John Bowlby: shows that attachment has biological and evolutionary basis; infants are biologically programmed to emit behavior(smiling,, cooing, clinging and so on) that triggers an affectionate, protective response from adults. Patterns of Attachment Infant-mother attachments fall into three categories: Secure (65%): - play & explore comfortably with their mother present, become visibly upset when she leaves, and calmed by her presence Insecure: - Anxious-ambivalent (20%): appear anxious even when their mother is near & protest excessively when she leaves but are not comforted when she returns Avoidant (15%): - seek little contact with their mother, & are not distressed when she leaves Disorganized-disoriented (mixture of above 2): - appear confused about whether they should approach/avoid their mother & are insecure. - Typical in abusive relationships - Based on these attachment experiences, children develop internal working models of the dynamics of close relationships that influence their future interactions with a wide range of people - Babies who receive non-maternal care for more then 20 hr/week are at risk for insecure attachments with their mother -Maternal behavior has influence on the type of attachment that emerges b.w infant & mother -Mothers who are sensitive & responsive to their children’s needs are more likely to promote secure attachments than mothers who are relatively insensitive/inconsistent in responding - Based on the attachment experience, children develop internal working models of the dynamics of close relationships that influence their future interactions with a range of people. - Infants with a secure attachment tend to become resilient, competent toddlers with high self esteem. -The effects of daycare on attachment are a source of concern, but the evidence is hotly debated Culture andAttachment • Emergence of separation anxiety seems universal • But rates of secure vs. anxious-ambivalent vs. avoidant attachments vary by culture (e.g. Germany and Japan). • Attributed to variations in child-rearing practices (e.g. Germans encourage independence unlike Japanese) Becoming Unique: Personality Development -Freud claimed that the basic foundation of an individual’s personality is established by 5 Astage: is a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established - Stage theories assume that individuals must progress through specified stages in a specific order b/c each stage builds on the previous; progress through each stage varies w/ age Erikson’s Stage Theory Erik Erikson’s theory of personality development proposes that individuals evolve through eight stages over the life span -Personality is shaped by how individuals deal with these psychosocial crises Trust vs Mistrust: - 1 year of life where infant depends on adults for their needs - if basic needs are met & good attachments are made w/ caregivers, the child will develop an optimistic view on the world - opposite for if basic needs are not met Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt: rd - 2nd & 3 years where child begins to take some responsibility for their needs - if all goes well, child establishes a sense of self-sufficiency unless parents are consistency unsatisfied w/ them they may develop shame & self-doubt Example: toilet training, development of physical skills Initiative Vs Guilt - ages 3-6, children experiment & take initiative that conflict with parental rules - overcontrolling parents instill feelings of guilt & self esteem may suffer - Industry vs Inferiority - through puberty, challenge of learning to function socially is extended beyond the family to the social realm of primary school and society - -children who learn to value achievement & take pride in accomplishment results in a sense of competence, otherwise at risk for inferiority & worthlessness - -am I competent or worthless? Identity vs confusion - Age 12-18 (adolescence), major important event is the development of peer relationships in achieving an identity in religion, career choices, sexual orientation, etc - Who am I and where am I going Intimacy vs isolation - Ages 19-40 - Shall I share my life with another or live alone? - Looking for someone to understand you - Generativity vs self-absoroption - 40-65 - will I produce something of real value? - Parenting is a major responsibility or career paths Integrity vs despair - age 65-death - have I lived a full life? Acceptance of life and reflection of events in their life & whether or not their fulfilled - The Growth Thought: Cognitive Development Cognitive development: refers to transitions in youngsters patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering and problem solving Piaget (1896-1980) developed the stage theory of cognitive development - He said that youngsters go through 4 stages of cognitive development -He said that children progress in their thinking through assimilation and accommodation which work interactively - Assimilation: involves interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them - So dealing with the environment in terms of your existing knowledge Example: If a child has learned to call four-legged pets “puppies” may apply this way of thinking the first time the child sees a cat (assimilation), but she will eventually discover that puppies and cats are different types of animals and make adjustments to her mental schemas (accomadations). - Accommodation involves changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences O so modify your established schema (developed from assimilation) to better fit your environment Four Stages of Piagets Stage Theory 1. Sensorimotor Period: birth – 2 years old - It is called a sensorimotor period b/c o infants are developing the ability to coordinate their sensory input with their motor actions o They have gradual appearance of symbolic thought, so they would be able to have a mental image of a favorite toy - Key concept in this stage is Object Permanence - Object permanence: develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible (hidden). It requires the ability to form a mental representation(i.e schema) of the obkect For example, if you place a toy under a blanket, the child who has achieved object permanence knows it is there and can actively seek it. Before this stage, the child behaves as if the toy had simply disappeared. The attainment of object permanence generally signals the transition to the next stage. 2. Preoperational Period: 2-7 years old o Development of symbolic thought marked by: Irreversibility: is the inability to envision reversing an action Example: when looking at the water experiment mentioned below, the child will not be able to think about what would happen if the water was poured back from the tall beaker into the original beaker. Centration: tendency to focus on just one
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