HUMAN MEMORY: (CHAPTER 7)
memory for general information - semantic
memory for personal events - episodic
-KC endured trauma to head due to a motorcycle accident and lost episodic
-encoding: involves forming memory code
storage: involves minting encoded information in memory overtime.
retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores
-attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or
events. selective attention is critical to everyday functioning.
-filteration of awareness, the key debate: whether stimuli was screened out
early or late.
-cocktail party phenomenon: at a party you attend to one conversation at a
time but still respond to your name, therefore attention involves late selection,
based on the meaning of input.
-cognitive load of current information processing: higher tasks selection
occurs early, when involved in simpler tasks it allows for later selection.
-cell phone conversations more dangerous than in car conversations:
studies prove that passengers adapt conversations based on traffic.
-levels of processing theory: proposes that deeper levels of processing result
in longer lasting memory codes.
-craik and lockhart: shallow processing - structural encoding: physical
structure of stimulus
-intermediate processing-phonemic encoding: sound of word (naming or saying
deep intermediate processing: semantic encoding: meaning of verbal input.
-Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.
- the ability to elaborate contributes to varying amount of retention after
-dual-coding theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and
visual codes , since either can lead to recall.
-the ability to form a mental image affects memory (difference between abstract
and concrete concepts)
-image potential: high-high (juggler, dress), high-low(letter-effort), low-high (duty-
motel), and low-low (quality-necessity) respectively average recall declines.
self referent encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is personally
experiment: rogers, kuiper, and kirker - subjects asked which traits on the screen
applied to their personality= improved recall.
kuiper- depressed people are more negative self prototype/self-concept.
information processing theories: divide memory into three separate memory
stores which varied with theories. -atkinsons and shiffrin- most influential memory-processing theory, incoming
information passes through two temporary storage buffers, sensory store, and
short term store before it is translated into long-term store.
-the sensory memory: preserves information in original sensory form for a brief
time usually only for fraction of second.
-in the case of vision people really perceive afterimage than the actual stimulus.
-this brief linger in sensory memory allows for additional time for recognition of
stimuli. iconic memory (visual) 500ms (0.5s) echoic memory (auditory) 3
experiment: sperling - 2 rows of letters flashed across screen for 1/20th of a
second, a tone following corresponded with which row of letters the subject
should report to the experimenter. subjects were fairly accurate when the signal
occurred immediately, accuracy steadily declined as the delay of the tone
increased to one second.
Short term memory (STM): Limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed
information for up to about 20 seconds.
experiment: remember 3 consonants without rehearsal, asked them to count
backwards by 3 from the time and asked asked to recall after light was signalled.
accuracy was about 10% after 15 seconds.
experiment: duncan argued that since the rats short term memory had been
disturbed by the ECS, they stayed longer in the dark chamber the next time they
were put in --> because they couldn't remember having been give footshock
flawed fear of ECS was confounded with memory.
-theorists believed loss of information from short term memory was due to
memory decay, but follow up research shows that interference competing
material also contributes.
-ETC also knows as ECS (electroconvulsive therapy) used to treat depression
interferes with neural circuits formed due to memory.
-rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information,
can aid short term memory to store long term memory.
-maintenance rehearsal: simply maintaining the information in consciousness.
-elaborative rehearsal/processing: increasing probability of retention.
millers research - in STM people are only able to recall seven items (+ or -2) from
an unfamiliar material.
cowans research- STM memory may actually only 4(+ or -1) (to date this is the
more popular conclusion) the capacity of STM has historically been
overestimated because researchers have failed to take steps to prevent
rehearsal or chunking by participants.
chunk: group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit.
-increase capacity of short term memory by combining stimuli into larger possibly
higher-order units "chunks"
study: chess experts more efficiently remembered positions that were meaningful
after a few seconds( same with other areas like music, medicine and programming) because experts chucked information differently and more
effectively - into larger perceptual chunks of familiar pieces.
working memory: the limited capacity storage system that temporarily maintains
and stores information by providing an interface between perception, memory
-short term memory does have limited capacity and storage duration BUT is not
limited to phonemic encoding, decay is not the only reason for forgetting.
involves more than simple rehearsal buffer therefore new model of short term
memory = working memory.
-baddley's model of working memory: the phonological loop: represented all
earlier STM models-seceral cortical areas in the left hemisphere)
-visual -spatial sketchpad: permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate
visual imagoes (found in the right hemisphere) this is needed for travel, mentally
rearranging furniture. is show by subjects seeing visual and spatial sequences
and asked to re-create.
-central executive system: controls the development of attention (switching and
-episodic buffer: temporary limited capacity store the various components of
working memory to integrate information and that serves as an interface between
working memory and long term memory.
-working memory capacity: refers to ones ability to hold and manipulate
information in conscious attention.
Long term memory: an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over
lengthy periods of time.
-PET scans show retrieval from long term memory induces activity in the pre-
frontal cortex pen filed used ESB to investigated function of patients undergoing
epilepsy surgery, stimulation of the temporal lobe may trigger vivid description of
long lost past memory.
--> often included distortions of factual possibilities, apparently were
hallucinations, dreams or loose reconstruction of events.
Flashbulb memories: usually vivid detailed recollections of momentous events
-often less detailed and inaccurate, people feel strong emotional attachment
which allows these recollections to feel real.
clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups
--> bousefiled showed that people spontaneously organize information to store
-conceptual hierarchy: multilevel classification system, based on common
properties among items
- a schema: organized cluster of knowledge about particular object or event
abstracted from previous experience with object or event.
--> brewer and treyens - tested recall of 30 subjects visiting an office and most subjects recalled typical things but few recalled the picnic table or wine bottle.
-people are more likely to remember things consistent with schemas
-sometimes people exhibit better recall of things that violate their schema - based
--> baldwin: relationship schemas: regularities in our interpersonal experience
affect the way you process information about others and yourself. (may
contribute to low self esteem and social anxiety)
-a semantic network: consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by
pathways that link related concepts.
-spreading activation: spreads about along the pathways of semantic network
surrounding the work. strength of activation decreases and it travels outward (like
ripples in a pond)
-connectionist, or parallel districted processing PDP models: assume that
cognitive process depend on patterns of activation in high interconnected
computational networks that resemble neural networks.
-PDP models assert that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of
activation in these networks.
-the tip of the tongue phenomenon: the temporary inability to remember
something you know, accompanied by a feeling that its just out of reach.
-encoding specificity principle by tulving: memory for information was better when
the conditions during encoding and retrieval were similar.
-context cues: often facilitate the retrieval of information
ex: place you used to live= long forgotten memories, or going back into a room
after forgetting why you left.
-context cues may enhance eyewitness recall.
-regression hypnosis: supposedly allowing people to relieve memories is
discredited, this can actually bring out incorrect information (cautious about
hypnotized subject testifying)
-state and mood dependent: matching a persons internal state and the retrieval
phase is just a special case of the specificity principle. research proves that state
dependent memory effects are readily obs