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York University
PSYC 1010

HUMAN MEMORY: (CHAPTER 7) memory for general information - semantic memory for personal events - episodic -KC endured trauma to head due to a motorcycle accident and lost episodic memory. -encoding: involves forming memory code storage: involves minting encoded information in memory overtime. retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores -attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. selective attention is critical to everyday functioning. -filteration of awareness, the key debate: whether stimuli was screened out early or late. -cocktail party phenomenon: at a party you attend to one conversation at a time but still respond to your name, therefore attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of input. -cognitive load of current information processing: higher tasks selection occurs early, when involved in simpler tasks it allows for later selection. -cell phone conversations more dangerous than in car conversations: studies prove that passengers adapt conversations based on traffic. -levels of processing theory: proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes. -craik and lockhart: shallow processing - structural encoding: physical structure of stimulus -intermediate processing-phonemic encoding: sound of word (naming or saying words,) deep intermediate processing: semantic encoding: meaning of verbal input. -Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding. - the ability to elaborate contributes to varying amount of retention after encoding. -dual-coding theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes , since either can lead to recall. -the ability to form a mental image affects memory (difference between abstract and concrete concepts) -image potential: high-high (juggler, dress), high-low(letter-effort), low-high (duty- motel), and low-low (quality-necessity) respectively average recall declines. self referent encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant. experiment: rogers, kuiper, and kirker - subjects asked which traits on the screen applied to their personality= improved recall. kuiper- depressed people are more negative self prototype/self-concept. information processing theories: divide memory into three separate memory stores which varied with theories. -atkinsons and shiffrin- most influential memory-processing theory, incoming information passes through two temporary storage buffers, sensory store, and short term store before it is translated into long-term store. -the sensory memory: preserves information in original sensory form for a brief time usually only for fraction of second. -in the case of vision people really perceive afterimage than the actual stimulus. -this brief linger in sensory memory allows for additional time for recognition of stimuli. iconic memory (visual) 500ms (0.5s) echoic memory (auditory) 3 seconds. experiment: sperling - 2 rows of letters flashed across screen for 1/20th of a second, a tone following corresponded with which row of letters the subject should report to the experimenter. subjects were fairly accurate when the signal occurred immediately, accuracy steadily declined as the delay of the tone increased to one second. Short term memory (STM): Limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds. experiment: remember 3 consonants without rehearsal, asked them to count backwards by 3 from the time and asked asked to recall after light was signalled. accuracy was about 10% after 15 seconds. experiment: duncan argued that since the rats short term memory had been disturbed by the ECS, they stayed longer in the dark chamber the next time they were put in --> because they couldn't remember having been give footshock there. flawed fear of ECS was confounded with memory. -theorists believed loss of information from short term memory was due to memory decay, but follow up research shows that interference competing material also contributes. -ETC also knows as ECS (electroconvulsive therapy) used to treat depression interferes with neural circuits formed due to memory. -rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information, can aid short term memory to store long term memory. -maintenance rehearsal: simply maintaining the information in consciousness. -elaborative rehearsal/processing: increasing probability of retention. millers research - in STM people are only able to recall seven items (+ or -2) from an unfamiliar material. cowans research- STM memory may actually only 4(+ or -1) (to date this is the more popular conclusion) the capacity of STM has historically been overestimated because researchers have failed to take steps to prevent rehearsal or chunking by participants. chunk: group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit. -increase capacity of short term memory by combining stimuli into larger possibly higher-order units "chunks" study: chess experts more efficiently remembered positions that were meaningful after a few seconds( same with other areas like music, medicine and programming) because experts chucked information differently and more effectively - into larger perceptual chunks of familiar pieces. working memory: the limited capacity storage system that temporarily maintains and stores information by providing an interface between perception, memory and action. -short term memory does have limited capacity and storage duration BUT is not limited to phonemic encoding, decay is not the only reason for forgetting. involves more than simple rehearsal buffer therefore new model of short term memory = working memory. -baddley's model of working memory: the phonological loop: represented all earlier STM models-seceral cortical areas in the left hemisphere) -visual -spatial sketchpad: permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual imagoes (found in the right hemisphere) this is needed for travel, mentally rearranging furniture. is show by subjects seeing visual and spatial sequences and asked to re-create. -central executive system: controls the development of attention (switching and dividing focus) -episodic buffer: temporary limited capacity store the various components of working memory to integrate information and that serves as an interface between working memory and long term memory. -working memory capacity: refers to ones ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention. Long term memory: an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time. -PET scans show retrieval from long term memory induces activity in the pre- frontal cortex pen filed used ESB to investigated function of patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, stimulation of the temporal lobe may trigger vivid description of long lost past memory. --> often included distortions of factual possibilities, apparently were hallucinations, dreams or loose reconstruction of events. Flashbulb memories: usually vivid detailed recollections of momentous events -often less detailed and inaccurate, people feel strong emotional attachment which allows these recollections to feel real. clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups --> bousefiled showed that people spontaneously organize information to store it. -conceptual hierarchy: multilevel classification system, based on common properties among items - a schema: organized cluster of knowledge about particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with object or event. --> brewer and treyens - tested recall of 30 subjects visiting an office and most subjects recalled typical things but few recalled the picnic table or wine bottle. -people are more likely to remember things consistent with schemas -sometimes people exhibit better recall of things that violate their schema - based expectations. --> baldwin: relationship schemas: regularities in our interpersonal experience affect the way you process information about others and yourself. (may contribute to low self esteem and social anxiety) -a semantic network: consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts. -spreading activation: spreads about along the pathways of semantic network surrounding the work. strength of activation decreases and it travels outward (like ripples in a pond) -connectionist, or parallel districted processing PDP models: assume that cognitive process depend on patterns of activation in high interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks. -PDP models assert that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks. -the tip of the tongue phenomenon: the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that its just out of reach. -encoding specificity principle by tulving: memory for information was better when the conditions during encoding and retrieval were similar. -context cues: often facilitate the retrieval of information ex: place you used to live= long forgotten memories, or going back into a room after forgetting why you left. -context cues may enhance eyewitness recall. -regression hypnosis: supposedly allowing people to relieve memories is discredited, this can actually bring out incorrect information (cautious about hypnotized subject testifying) -state and mood dependent: matching a persons internal state and the retrieval phase is just a special case of the specificity principle. research proves that state dependent memory effects are readily obs
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