LEARNING: (CHAPTER 6)
-learning: any relative durable change in behaviour or knowledge due to
-phobias: irrational fear of specific objects or situations.
-conditioning: learning connections between events that occur in an organism's
-classical conditioning: a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the
capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
Ivan pavlov: dogs salivating before the meat powered presented, salivate in
response to clicking sound before meat powder was presented. he used simple
auditory stimulus (tone) after meat was presented with it and sometimes just the
tone. dogs salivated to the tone.
- unconditioned stimulus (UCS): Stimulus that evokes an unconditioned
response without previous conditioning (ex: meat powder)
-the unconditioned response (UCR) : an unlearned reaction to an
unconditioned response without previous conditioning. (ex: meat powder =
- Conditioned stimulus (CS): Previously neutral stimulus that has, through
conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response. (ex: tone)
- conditioned response (CR): A Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that
occurs because of previous conditioning (ex: tone=salivation)
-trial: in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair
-evaluative conditioning: refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result
from pairing a stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli.
-neutral stimulus is paired with unconditioned stimuli that trigger positive reaction,
neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus which elicits positive response.
-technique used in politics and marketing.
-studies: - pleasant music paired with unknown brand of root beer.
-pairing an attractive face gazing directly at the viewer with peppermint brands
swayed objects preferences.
-funny cartoons paired with two types of energy drinks increased popularity.
still debating: is it a special form of conditioning?
immunosuppression: a decrease in the production of antibodies which reduce
invasion by producing specialized antibodies.
-animals injected with a drug (US) that chemically causes immunosuppression,
while they are simultaneously given an unusual tasting liquid to drink (CS) .days
later some animals are reexposed to CS, antibody production show a reduced
study on sexual arousal: quail can be conditioned to become sexually aroused by
neutral nonsexual stimulus. - red light paired with opportunity to copulate.
-conditioned stimuli can cause an elicit increased sperm release in male quail - conditioned response that would convey obvious evolutionary advantage.
-humans conditioned to associate type of music, candles etc to a sexual
fetishes: humans also can be conditioned to be aroused by objects and
Compensatory CRs: when a drug administration US conditions responses that
are the opposite of normal effects of the drugs (narcotics, stimulants and alcohol)
- compensation of the drugs side effects. As compensatory CRs strengthen they
neutralize the drugs effects = TOLERANCE. (may also promote cravings)
-acquisition: refers to the initial stage of learning something extinction: gradual
weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency.
-stimulus contiguity: they occur together in same time and space.
-extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response
Example: pavlov representing the tone alone for a long period of time = no
-spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of an extinguished response after a
period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus.
Example: pavlov presents tone alone for a period of time= no salivation, brings
dog out of testing chamber and later brings dog back --> tone = weaker
-renewal effect: If a response is extinguished in a different environment than it
was acquired the extinguished response will reappear if the animal returned to
the original environment where acquisition took place.
-extinction does not appear to lead to unlearning, even if you rid yourself to a
conditioned response there is a great chance it will appear later = RELAPSE.
stimulus generalization: Occurs when an organism that has learned a response
to a specific stimulus responds the same ay to the new stimuli that are similar to
the original stimulus.
-CR is elicited by new stimulus that resembles Original CS
-the more similar new stimuli is to the original CS, the greater the generalization.
--> quantified in graphs called generalization gradients
panic disorder: recurrent overwhelming anxiety attacks that occur suddenly and
-they tend to overgeneralize: broader generalization gradient than control
-john B watson: (against introspection)founder of behaviourism, little albert
experiment. 11 month old baby boy paired a rat with loud startling sound,
triggered fear response which turned the rat into a CS.
--> generalization occurred - fear of santa mass, fur coat, rabbit, dog and hair.
longitudinal study did not succeed, the boy was not tracked, watson was
criticized because no ensuring of long lasting ill effects.
stimulus discrimination: when an organism that has learned a response to a
specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to the new stimuli that are
similar to the original stimulus.
-CR is not elicited by new stimulus that resembles the original CS. - the less similar the new stimuli are to the original CS the greater the likelihood
(and ease) of discrimination.
-higher-order conditioning: In which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it
were an unconditioned stimulus.
-ex: tone with meat powder, then meat powder with red light, red light =
-new conditioned responses are build on the foundation of already established
-Fanselow paulos - neuroscience of associated learning ex. amygdala and
cerebellum in pavlovian fear and eye blink conditioning respectively.
-Ap dijksterhuis- subliminal conditioning to raise self-esteem. simple words "I"
follow by subliminal (below conscious awareness) positive words like "wise,
healthy or smart" for control group put random words like "bike or chair" the
participants in experimental group had significant higher self esteem.
Operant conditioning: Introduced by B.F skinner, is a form of learning in which
responses come to be controlled by their consequences.
-use of consequences - ones behaviour operate on environment.
-instrumental learning: term introduced by Edward L thorndike emphasizing
that this kind of responding is instrumental in obtaining a desired outcome.
B.F Skinner: founder of operant conditioning.
-baby in a box: modern mechanism to improve and modernize baby care
-trained pigeons to use their beaks to keep pecking in order to guide missiles into
demonstration: one group of pigeons trained to stimulate guiding missiles into
specific targets on new jersey coast. priorities were emphasized by government
and the project was cancelled.
-law of effect: if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to a satisfying
effects the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened
-reinforcement: occurs when an event following a response increases an
organisms tendency to make that response.
-operant chamber "skinner box": small enclosure in which an animal can make
a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are
-operant responses are voluntary they are EMIITTED not ELICITED
-Reinforcement contingencies: the circumstances or rules that determine
whether responses lead to to the presentation of reinforcer.
-the experimenter manipulates whether positive consequences will occur for
ex: food into the chamber, sometimes animal is starved to increase
-the cumulative recorder: creates a graphic record of responding and
reinforcement in a skinner box as a function of time.
-a rapid response rate produces a s