Textbook Notes (363,127)
Canada (158,212)
York University (12,357)
Psychology (3,541)
PSYC 1010 (1,075)
all (8)


7 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 1010

LEARNING: (CHAPTER 6) -learning: any relative durable change in behaviour or knowledge due to experience. -phobias: irrational fear of specific objects or situations. -conditioning: learning connections between events that occur in an organism's environment. -classical conditioning: a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. pavilion conditioning Ivan pavlov: dogs salivating before the meat powered presented, salivate in response to clicking sound before meat powder was presented. he used simple auditory stimulus (tone) after meat was presented with it and sometimes just the tone. dogs salivated to the tone. - unconditioned stimulus (UCS): Stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning (ex: meat powder) -the unconditioned response (UCR) : an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned response without previous conditioning. (ex: meat powder = salivation.) - Conditioned stimulus (CS): Previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response. (ex: tone) - conditioned response (CR): A Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning (ex: tone=salivation) -trial: in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli. -evaluative conditioning: refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing a stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli. -neutral stimulus is paired with unconditioned stimuli that trigger positive reaction, neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus which elicits positive response. -technique used in politics and marketing. -studies: - pleasant music paired with unknown brand of root beer. -pairing an attractive face gazing directly at the viewer with peppermint brands swayed objects preferences. -funny cartoons paired with two types of energy drinks increased popularity. still debating: is it a special form of conditioning? immunosuppression: a decrease in the production of antibodies which reduce invasion by producing specialized antibodies. -animals injected with a drug (US) that chemically causes immunosuppression, while they are simultaneously given an unusual tasting liquid to drink (CS) .days later some animals are reexposed to CS, antibody production show a reduced immune response. study on sexual arousal: quail can be conditioned to become sexually aroused by neutral nonsexual stimulus. - red light paired with opportunity to copulate. (intercourse) -conditioned stimuli can cause an elicit increased sperm release in male quail - conditioned response that would convey obvious evolutionary advantage. -humans conditioned to associate type of music, candles etc to a sexual atmosphere. fetishes: humans also can be conditioned to be aroused by objects and situations. Compensatory CRs: when a drug administration US conditions responses that are the opposite of normal effects of the drugs (narcotics, stimulants and alcohol) - compensation of the drugs side effects. As compensatory CRs strengthen they neutralize the drugs effects = TOLERANCE. (may also promote cravings) -acquisition: refers to the initial stage of learning something extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency. -stimulus contiguity: they occur together in same time and space. -extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency Example: pavlov representing the tone alone for a long period of time = no salivation. -spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus. Example: pavlov presents tone alone for a period of time= no salivation, brings dog out of testing chamber and later brings dog back --> tone = weaker salivation. -renewal effect: If a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired the extinguished response will reappear if the animal returned to the original environment where acquisition took place. -extinction does not appear to lead to unlearning, even if you rid yourself to a conditioned response there is a great chance it will appear later = RELAPSE. stimulus generalization: Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds the same ay to the new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. -CR is elicited by new stimulus that resembles Original CS -the more similar new stimuli is to the original CS, the greater the generalization. --> quantified in graphs called generalization gradients panic disorder: recurrent overwhelming anxiety attacks that occur suddenly and unexpectedly -they tend to overgeneralize: broader generalization gradient than control subjects. -john B watson: (against introspection)founder of behaviourism, little albert experiment. 11 month old baby boy paired a rat with loud startling sound, triggered fear response which turned the rat into a CS. --> generalization occurred - fear of santa mass, fur coat, rabbit, dog and hair. longitudinal study did not succeed, the boy was not tracked, watson was criticized because no ensuring of long lasting ill effects. stimulus discrimination: when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to the new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. -CR is not elicited by new stimulus that resembles the original CS. - the less similar the new stimuli are to the original CS the greater the likelihood (and ease) of discrimination. -higher-order conditioning: In which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus. -ex: tone with meat powder, then meat powder with red light, red light = salivation. -new conditioned responses are build on the foundation of already established conditioned responses. -Fanselow paulos - neuroscience of associated learning ex. amygdala and cerebellum in pavlovian fear and eye blink conditioning respectively. -Ap dijksterhuis- subliminal conditioning to raise self-esteem. simple words "I" follow by subliminal (below conscious awareness) positive words like "wise, healthy or smart" for control group put random words like "bike or chair" the participants in experimental group had significant higher self esteem. Operant conditioning: Introduced by B.F skinner, is a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences. -use of consequences - ones behaviour operate on environment. -instrumental learning: term introduced by Edward L thorndike emphasizing that this kind of responding is instrumental in obtaining a desired outcome. B.F Skinner: founder of operant conditioning. -baby in a box: modern mechanism to improve and modernize baby care -trained pigeons to use their beaks to keep pecking in order to guide missiles into their target. demonstration: one group of pigeons trained to stimulate guiding missiles into specific targets on new jersey coast. priorities were emphasized by government and the project was cancelled. -law of effect: if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to a satisfying effects the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened -reinforcement: occurs when an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that response. -operant chamber "skinner box": small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled. -operant responses are voluntary they are EMIITTED not ELICITED -Reinforcement contingencies: the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to to the presentation of reinforcer. -the experimenter manipulates whether positive consequences will occur for designated response ex: food into the chamber, sometimes animal is starved to increase reinforcement. -the cumulative recorder: creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a function of time. -a rapid response rate produces a s
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.