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PSYC 1010 (1,075)
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York University
PSYC 1010

THE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS: (chapter 5) somniloque - sleep talking narcolepsy - falling asleep uncontrollably during daily routines. consciousness - the awareness of internal and external stimuli. your consciousness is continuously changing - called the stream of consciousness. Mind wandering - peoples experience when they think of task unrelated thoughts. estimated 15-50% of time. -studies show might occur less if the task is one that requires a lot of cognitive resources. -controlled (judgments or thoughts) and automatic processes (unconsciousness or unintentional) experiment i.e.) people rating faces unaware of associated smell Malcom Gladwell's book "blink" - refers to how quickly and effortlessly our judgments and choices are made. consciousness does not arise from any area of the brain but rather from activity in distributed networks of neural pathways. electroencephalograph (EEG) - device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp. it summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain in terms of line tracings called brain waves. the brain waves vary in amplitude and frequency(cps) human brain wave activity is usually divided into four principal bands based on the frequency of the brain waves 1. beta (13-24 cps) - normal waking thought, alert problem solving 2. alpha (8-12 cps) - deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation. 3. theta (4-7 cps) - light sleep 4. delta (<4 cps)- deep sleep. BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP: biological rhythms - periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning's. means humans have internal biological clocks that somehow monitor the passage of time. circadian rhythms - 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species. in humans - responsible for the regulation of sleep, blood pressure, urine production and hormonal secretion. There are multiple biological clocks: -when exposed to light retina sends direct inputs to a structure in the hypothalamus called the superchiasmatic nucleus which sends a signal to the pineal gland which may secrete appropriate hormones. (i.e. melatonin - sleep hormone) -day light savings time: april (an hour forward) more accidents, no affect in the fall jet lag: inferior state associated with measurable deficits in cognitive performance, increase health problems. flying westbound: have to stay up later flying eastbound: time is later so bed time is earlier, people find this much harder. -melatonin decreases the effects. lack of sleep: decrease immunity carefully timed light exposure: can realign the circadian rhythms. THE SLEEP AND WAKING CYCLE: -electromyograph (EMG): Records muscular activity and tension -electrooulograph (EOG) : records eye movement. Awake: Low voltage high frequency beta waves. drowsy: alpha waves prominent. Stage 1: (1-7 minutes) -transitional waves - theta waves prominent. -breathing and heart rate slow -lower frequency EEG (neurons doing things in sync for lower frequency) hypnic jerks: brief muscular contractions before falling asleep stage 2,3,4 -bodily rates decline continuously. sleep spindles occur (weird blimps) stage 2 (10-25 minutes) -mixed EEG activity - spindles: brief bursts of higher frequency -brain waves grow in amplitude and slower frequency toward "slow-wave sleep" (deep sleep) slow wave sleep: stages 3 & 4 during which high amplitude low frequency delta waves become more prominent in EEG recordings. REM Sleep: (usually occurs after 90 minutes) - rapid eye movement - closed eyes lateral movements. -william dement: sleep researcher coined REM sleep. -difficult to wake from, muscle tone is extremely relaxed VIVID DREAMING: EEG dominated by high frequency beta waves that resemble hose observed when people are alert and awake. Caryl smith - psych prof at trent U. found correlations with sleep stages and memory. EX: stage 2 may be important for procedural motor type tasks. while REM sleep may be important for complex logic type tasks. The cycle changes gradually, first REM is relatively short and gets longer around 40-60 minutes in length. Slow wave sleep occurs in early sleep cycle and REM piles up in the second half. adults spend 15-20 percent in slow wave another 20-25 percent in REM. The remainder of first year REM Portion of infants sleep declines 30%, continues to decrease until it levels off at about 20% REM sleep remains fairly stable after adult hood, slow wave sleep declines percentage spent in stage 1 increases slightly. (these trends are stronger in men than women) -may be contributing to increased frequency of night time awakening in elderly. -recent study shows that extended sleep opportunities in elderly but need less sleep than younger adults. Co-sleeping: Parents and children sleeping together is discouraged in western culture but encouraged in japanese culture (interdependence and group emphasis) "siesta cultures" - tropical regions: one two hour midday nap when shops close down. IMPORTANT STRUCTURE: reticular formation: at the core of the brainstem Ascending reticular activating system: afferent fibres running through the reticular formation that influence physiological arousal. -when ascending fibres that diffuse to other areas (afferent) are severed, the result is continuous sleep. -damage: causes coma, sleep-like EEG waves -pons, midbrain, hypothalamus: critical to REM sleep. -Medulla, thalamus and basal forebrain have also been noted in the control of sleep regulation: Horomones and neurotransmitters as well. RESEARCH ON SLEEP DEPRIVATION: -partial sleep deprivation/sleep restrictions: occur when people make do with less sleep than normal over a period of time. Experiments: Students giving up 24 hours performed poorly in cognitive tasks but rated their effort, concentration and performance higher than normal routine students. -sleep deprived people are not good at predicting when and if they will sleep. Matthew walker - 35 hours awake group exposing series of photos (neutral to negative). assessed the activity of the brain through fMRI. Amygdalas more active in the sleep deprived. Sleep deprivation: Type of partial sleep deprivation investigated by psychologists. -REM deprivation causes increase of REM in sleep cycle. -slow wave sleep deprivation, more awakenings, people experience a rebound effect. memory consolidation: General effect of learning from daytime experience. Neurogenesis: Formation of new neurons SlEEP DISORDERS: Insomina: Chronic problems in getting adequate sleep. - excessive anxiety, tension, side effects of emotional problems. ( depression), stress, health problems. -some people are predisposed because they have a higher level of physiological arrousal than most. -hyper arousal model: people exhibit hormonal patterns that fuel arousal, elevated heart rate, high metabolic activation, increased body temperature and EEG patterns associated with arousal. Treatment: benzodiazepine sedatives (made for anxiety) non benzodiazepine sedatives (designed for sleep problems) Narcolepsy: Sudden irresistible onset of sleep during normal waking periods. -wakefulness to REM sleep (sleep lasts 10-20 minutes) -some are genetically predisposed -stimulant drugs to treat condition also can cause serious side effects Sleep apnea: Frequent reflexive gasping for air that awake a person and disputes sleep. accompanied with loud snoring, correlated with heart problems. -increases vulnerability to hyper tension, coronary disease and stroke. -2% women, 4% men between ages 30-60 treatment: Lifestyle modifications (weight loss, reduced alcohol intake, drug therapy, special masks and oral devices ) Nightmares: Anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening usually from REM sleep. -stage 1. (about 7 hours of sleep) -awaken and have difficulty falling back asleep. -stress induced. -children should attend counselling. night terror "sleep terrors": abrupt awakening from NREM sleep, accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feeling of panic. -stage 4 (within 2-3 hours of sleep) Somnanabulism "sleep talking": 15 seconds - 30 minutes) -occurs when a person rises and starts to wander while remaining asleep. -stage 3 (within first hour) -not related to emotional or psychological problems -genetic predisposition. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD): Marked by potentially troublesome dream enactment during REM periods(can be violent). -typically in men in 50-60 yrs old -some sort of detonation in brainstem structures responsible for immobility during REM sleep. -may coexist with other sleep orders. DREAMS: dream: REM sleep that processes a visual story-like experience. -non REM stages of sleep, dreams appear less vivid, visual and story like. -mental processes of sleep more similar to waking thought processes than assumed -tolerant of logical discrepancies and implausible scenarios. -differences
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