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Chapter

Memory

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Winter

Description
Memory   Module  23:  Studying  &  Building  Memories   Studying  Memory:       Memory:  the  persistence  of  learning  over  time  through  the  storage  and  retrieval  of  information   o Evidence  that  learning  persists  takes  3  forms:       o Recall:  a  measure  of  memory  in  which  the  person  must  retrieve  information  learned   earlier,  as  on  a  fill-­‐in-­‐the-­‐blank  test   o Recognition:  a  measure  of  memory  in  which  the  person  need  only  identify  items   previously  learned,  as  on  a  multiple-­‐choice  test   o Relearning:  a  measure  of  memory  that  assesses  the  amount  of  time  saved  when   learning  material  again       Measures  of  Retention:     o Recall,  recognition,  and  relearning  are  3  ways  that  psychologists  measure  retention  of   memories   o Recognition  memory  is  quick  and  vast     o Our  speed  at  relearning  also  reveals  memory     o German  philosopher  Hermann  Ebbinghaus  showed  this  in  his  learning  experiments     ▯ He  randomly  selected  a  sample  of  syllables,  practiced  them  and  tested  himself.   A  day  after  learning  a  list,  Ebbinghaus  could  recall  few  of  the  syllables.     ▯ The  more  frequently  he  repeated  the  list  aloud  on  day  1,  the  fewer  repetitions   he  required  to  relearn  the  list  on  day  2.  Overlearning  of  verbal  information   increases  retention,  especially  when  practice  is  distributed  over  time   o Tests  of  recognition  and  of  time  spent  relearning  demonstrate  the  we  remember  more  than   we  can  recall       Memory  Models:     o Psychologists  create  memory  models  to  help  us  think  about  how  our  brain  forms  and   retrieves  memories     o Information-­‐processing  models  are  analogies  that  compare  human  memory  to  a  computer’s   operations   o To  remember  any  event  we  must:     o Encoding:  the  processing  of  information  into  the  memory  system  (ex  extracting   meaning)     o Storage:  the  retention  of  encoded  information  over  time   o Retrieval:  the  process  of  getting  information  out  of  memory  storage     o Our  dual-­‐track  brain  processes  many  things  simultaneously  (consciously  and  unconsciously)   by  means  of  parallel  processing   o Connectionism  views  memories  as  products  of  interconnected  neural  networks           o Richard  Atkinson  and  Richard  Shiffrin  proposed  a  3  stage  model:     1. Sensory  memory:  the  immediate,  very  brief  recording  of  sensory  information  in   the  memory  system.     ▯ Can  hold  a  huge  amount  of  information  but  that  information  stays  alive  for  a   brief  period  of  time.     ▯ Has  a  huge  capacity   ▯ To  get  information  from  the  sensory  memory  to  the  short  term  memory   attention  must  be  paid     2. Short-­‐term  memory:  activated  memory  that  holds  a  few  items  briefly  before  the   information  is  stored  or  forgotten   ▯ Encode  it  through  rehearsal   ▯ Sometimes  called  working  memory     ▯ Can  hold  information  for  a  longer  time  compared  to  sensory  memory,  it  can   hold  information  for  about  15-­‐20  seconds     ▯ Has  a  limited  capacity  and  can  hold  7  ±2  pieces  of  information     o Such  as  seven  digits  of  a  phone  number  while  dialing     ▯ Believed  to  work  on  a  buffer  system   o Displacement:  information  that  is  kicked  out  of  the  short  term  memory   o Decay:  information  in  the  short  term  memory  will  gradually  fade  over   time     3. Long-­‐term  memory:  the  relatively  permanent  and  limitless  storehouse  of  the   memory  system.  Includes  knowledge,  skills  and  experiences.   o Working  memory  (model  of  short  term  memory):  a  newer  understanding  of  short-­‐term   memory  that  focuses  on  conscious,  active  processing  of  incoming  auditory  and  visual-­‐spatial   information,  and  of  information  retrieved  from  long-­‐term  memory.     o Alan  Baddeley  and  others  challenged  Atkinson  and  Shiffrin’s  view  of  short-­‐term   memory     o It’s  an  active  desktop  where  your  brain  processes  information,  making  sense  of  new   input  and  linking  it  with  long-­‐term  memories     o To  focus  on  the  active  processing  that  takes  place  in  this  middle  stage,  psychologists   use  the  term  working  memory     o Working  memory  includes  visual  and  auditory  rehearsal  of  new  information.  A   hypothetical  central  executive  (manager)  focuses  attention  and  pulls  information  from   long-­‐term  memory  to  help  make  sense  of  new  information     o How  can  you  increase  the  capacity  of  your  STM?:   o Chunking:     ▯ A  meaningful  unit  of  information     o Dual-­‐  track  memory:  Effortful  Versus  Automatic  Processing:     o Our  mind  operates  on  two  tracks:     ▯ Effortful  processing:  encoding  that  requires  attention  and  conscious  effort   • Explicit  memories:  memory  of  facts  and  experiences  that  one  can   consciously  know  and  “declare”  (also  called  declarative  memory)     ▯ Automatic  processing:  unconscious  encoding  of  incidental  information,  such   as  space,  time  and  frequency,  and  of  well-­‐learned  information  such  as  word   meanings     • Implicit  memories:  retention  independent  of  conscious  recollection   (also  known  as  non-­‐declarative  memory)     o The  two-­‐track  memory  system  reinforces  an  important  principle  of  parallel  processing     o Vision,  thinking  and  memory  may  seem  to  be  single  abilities,  but  they  are  not.  Rather   we  spilt  information  into  different  components  for  separate  and  simultaneous   processing     Building  Memories:     Encoding  &  Automatic  Processing:     o Implicit  memories  include  procedural  memory  for  automatic  skills  and  classically  conditioned   associations  among  stimuli.     o Without  conscious  effort  you  also  automatically  process  information  about:     o Space:     ▯ While  studying  you  often  encode  the  place  on  a  page  where  certain  material   appears,  and  later  when  retrieving  you  may  visualize     o Time:     ▯ You  unintentionally  note  the  sequence  of  events  and  later  realize  you  left  your   coat  somewhere,  the  event  sequence  your  brain  automatically  encoded  will   enable  you  to  retrace  your  steps   o Frequency:     ▯ Effortlessly  keep  track  of  how  many  times  things  happen   Encoding  &  Effortful  Processing:       o We  learn  to  drive,  to  text,  to  speak  a  new  language  with  effort  but  then  these  tasks  become   automatic   o Sensory  memory:     o Effortful  processing  begins  with  sensory  memory,  which  feeds  our  active  working   memory     o George  Sperling  demonstrated  that  people  actually  could  see  and  recall  all  the  letters,   but  only  momentarily.  Rather  than  ask  them  to  recall  all  nine  letters  at  once,  he   sounded  a  high,  medium  or  low  tone  immediately  after  flashing  the  nine  letters.  This   tone  directed  participants  to  report  only  the  letters  of  the  top,  middle  or  bottom  row,   respectively     o Iconic  memory:  a  momentary  sensory  memory  of  visual  stimuli;  a  photographic  or   picture-­‐image  memory  lasting  no  more  than  a  few  tenths  of  a  second.     ▯ Our  visual  screen  clears  quickly,  as  new  images  are  superimposed  over  old  ones     ▯ Can  be  recalled  within  a  quarter  of  a  second   o Echoic  Memory:  a  momentary  sensory  memory  of  a  auditory  stimuli;  if  attention  is   elsewhere,  sounds  and  words  can  still  be  recalled  with  3  or  4  seconds     o Capacity  of  Short-­‐Term  &  Working  Memory:     ▯ George  Miller  proposed  that  short-­‐term  memory  can  retain  about  seven   information  bits  (give  or  take  2)     ▯ Lloyd  Peterson  &  Margaret  experimented  to  find  out  how  quickly  our  short-­‐ term  memories  disappear   • Without  the  active  processing  that  we  now  understand  to  be  a  part  of   the  “working  memory”  concept,  short-­‐term  memories  have  a  limited   life     • Working  memory  varies,  depending  on  age  and  other  factors   o Young  adults  have  more  working-­‐memory  capacity,  meaning   the  ability  to  multitask  is  greater   o Unlike  short  term  memory  capacity,  working-­‐memory  capacity   appears  to  reflect  intelligence  level     o Effortful  Processing  Strategies:     ▯ Chunking:  organizing  items  into  familiar,  manageable  units;  often  occurs   automatically     ▯ Mnemonics:  memory  aids,  especially  those  techniques  that  use  vivid  imagery   and  organizational  devices   • Peg-­‐word  system   ▯ Hierarchies:  broad  concepts  are  divided  and  subdivided  into  narrower   concepts  and  facts   ▯ Distributed  Practice:  retain  information  when  encoding  is  distributed  over   time   • Spacing  effect:  the  tendency  for  distributed  study  or  practice  to  yield   better  long-­‐term  retention  than  is  achieved  through  massed  study  or   practice     • Testing  effect:  enhanced  memory  after  retrieving,  rather  than  simply   reading  information.  Also  sometimes  referred  to  as  a  retrieval  practice   effect  or  test-­‐enhanced  learning     o Levels  of  Processing:     ▯ Shallow  processing:  encoding  on  a  basic  level  based  on  the  structure  or   appearance  of  words     ▯ Deep  processing:  encoding  semantically,  based  on  the  meaning  of  the  words;   tends  to  yield  the  best  retention     o Making  Material  Personally  Meaningful:     ▯ The  amount  remembered  depends  both  on  the  time  spent  learning  and  on   your  making  it  meaningful  for  deep  processing     Module  25:  Retrieval   Retrieval  Cues:     o When  you  encode  into  memory  a  target  piece  of  information,  such  as  the  name  of  the  person   sitting  beside  you  in  class,  you  associate  with  it  other  bits  of  information  about  your   surroundings,  mood,  seating  position  and  so  on.     o These  serve  as  retrieval  cues,  which  allows  for  a  better  chance  of  finding  a  route  to  the   suspended  memory     Priming:     o Priming:  the  activation,  often  unconsciously  (without  our  awareness)  of  particular   associations  in  memory     o It  is  also  a  “memory
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