Module 23 Page 1
Studying and Building Memories
Memory - is learning that has persisted over time, information that has been stored and can be
Recall - a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as
on a fill-in-the-blank test.
Recognition - identifying items previously learned. A multiple choice question tests your
Relearning - a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning
Measures of Retention
• Recall, recognition and relearning 3 ways to measure retention of memories
• 1975 - 25 years later high school graduates could not recall many of their old
classmates, but 90% remembered pictures and names
• Our speed at relearning also reveals memory: German philosopher Hermann
Ebbinghaus randomly selected syllables, practiced them and tested himself. Read a list
over 8 times and try to recall them. JIH BAZ FUB YOX SUJ ZIR DAX LEQ VUM PID KEL
WAV TUV ZOF GEK HIW
• Additional rehearsal of verbal information increases retention, especially when
distributed over time
Information-Processing models are analogies that compare human memory to a computer's
operations. To remember any event we must encode, store and retrieve.
Encoding - the processing of information into the memory system Ex. extracting meaning
Storage - the retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval - the process of getting information out of memory storage
Our dual track brain processes many things simultaneously by parallel processing.
Connectionism views memories as products of interconnected neural networks. Richard
Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin developed our 3 stage memory-forming process: Module 23 Page 2
Sensory Memory - the immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory
Short-Term Memory - activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as 7 digits of a
phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long-Term Memory - the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Alan Baddeley challenges the Richard's view of short-term memory as a small brief storage
space for recent thoughts/experiences.
Working Memory - a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious,
active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information
retrieved from long-term memory. Baddeley suggests the central executive handles this focused
Enter Diagram here p315
Dual-Track Memory: Effortful VS. Automatic Processing
Richard's model focused on how we process Explicit Memories - memory of facts and
experiences that one can consciously known and declare. Declarative memory.
Our mind operates and two tracks and processes explicit memories through conscious Effortful
Processing - encoding that requires attention and conscio